Workplace Bullying – What’s It Got to Do With General Practice?

Workplace bullying – What’s it got to do with general practice?

Aust Fam Physician. 2013 Apr; 42(4): 186-8
Askew DA, Schluter PJ, Dick ML

Workplace bullying is repeated systematic, interpersonal abusive behaviours that negatively affect the targeted individual and the organisation in which they work. It is generally the result of actual or perceived power imbalances between perpetrator and victim, and includes behaviours that intimidate, offend, degrade or humiliate a worker. It is illegal, and bullied employees can take legal action against their employers for a breach of implied duty of trust and confidence. Despite this, workplace bullying occurs in many Australian workplaces, including Australian general practices.This article explores the issue of workplace bullying with particular reference to bullying within general practice and provides a framework for managing these situations.All general practices need organisation-wide anti-bullying policies that are endorsed by senior management, clearly define workplace bullying, and provide a safe procedure for reporting bullying behaviours. General practitioners should investigate whether workplace issues are a potential contributor to patients who present with depression and/or anxiety and assess the mental health of patients who do disclose that they are victims of workplace bullying, Importantly, the GP should reassure their patient that bullying is unacceptable and illegal, and that everyone has the right to a safe workplace free from violence, harassment and bullying. The time has come for all workplaces to acknowledge that workplace bullying is unacceptable and intolerable. HubMed – depression


Effect of five-consecutive-day exposure to an anxiogenic stressor on sleep-wake activity in rats.

Front Neurol. 2013; 4: 15
O’Malley MW, Fishman RL, Ciraulo DA, Datta S

Repeated exposure to an anxiogenic stressor (AS) is a known environmental factor for the development of depression, yet the progression of sleep-wake (S-W) changes associated with the onset of AS-induced depression (ASID) is not completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify these progressive S-W changes by developing ASID in rats, via repeated exposure to an AS, and compare this ASID-associated sleep phenotype with the sleep phenotype of human depression. To achieve this aim, rats were first recorded for a 6?h period of baseline S-W activity without AS. Then, rats were subjected to 5?days of AS [Day 1: inescapable foot-shock; 5 trials of 3?s foot-shocks (1.0?mA) at 3?min intervals; Days 3-5: 15 trials of 5?s foot-shocks at 45?s intervals]. S-W activity was recorded for 6?h immediately after each AS treatment session. Two days later rats were again recorded for 6?h of S-W activity, but with no exposure to the AS (NASD). Compared to the baseline day: Day 1 of AS (ASD-1) increased wakefulness, slow-wave sleep (SWS) latency, and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep latency, but decreased the total amount of REM sleep; ASD-2 animals remained awake throughout the 6?h S-W recording period; ASD-3, ASD-4, and ASD-5 (ASDs-3-5) decreased wakefulness, SWS latency, and REM sleep latency, but increased the total amount of REM sleep. Interestingly, these results reveal that initial exposure to the AS versus later, repeated exposure to the AS produced opposing S-W changes. On NASD, animals exhibited baseline-like S-W activity, except slightly less REM sleep. These results suggest that repeated AS produces a sleep phenotype that resembles the sleep phenotype of depression in humans, but consistent re-exposure to the AS is required. These results are promising because the methodological simplicity and reversibility of the ASID-associated S-W phenotype could be more advantageous than other animal models for studying the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie the expression of ASID. HubMed – depression


Neuropsychiatric and psychosocial issues of patients with hepatitis C infection: a selective literature review.

Hepat Mon. 2013 Jan; 13(1): e8340
Modabbernia A, Poustchi H, Malekzadeh R

We briefly reviewed the evidence on the association of hepatitis C (HCV) infection with several aspects of mental and psychosocial health.Medline was searched with appropriate keywords. The primary sources were the systematic reviews. If systematic reviews were not available for a subject, then the most relevant and methodologically sound original studies were selected.HCV infection is associated with poorer health-related quality of life, and physical, mental, and social health. A part of impaired health of these patients is related to cirrhosis, intravenous drug use, co morbid psychiatric disorders, stigmatization, poor social support, alcohol abuse, and interferon treatment. However, HCV itself is also associated with poorer health status particularly in the physical and cognitive domains, which might be related to brain alterations induced by the virus. Interferon treatment is an important cause of depression in HCV patients and sometimes is associated with irritability, manic episode, or acute confusional state. Social health of HCV patients is significantly impaired by stigmatization, poor social support, psychiatric comorbidties, and impaired coping. Psychosocial impairment of HCV patients significantly impairs their treatment adherence. A supportive and nonjudgmental multidisciplinary team is required for optimal management of these patients.Patients with HCV infection had complex neuropsychiatric and psychosocial problems. These problems are challenges for management of HCV infection, affect the patient’s care significantly, and might alter the course of the disease. A multidisciplinary approach, a supportive environment, and a nonjudgmental healthcare team are required for optimal medical and psychosocial management of patients with HCV. HubMed – depression