[Video Game and Internet Addiction : The Current State of Research.]

[Video game and internet addiction : The current state of research.]

Nervenarzt. 2013 Apr 4;
Rehbein F, Mößle T, Arnaud N, Rumpf HJ

The use of interactive screen media is widespread and for some users leads to pathological symptoms that are phenomenologically similar to signs of addictive disorders. Addictive use of computer games and other Internet applications, such as social media can be distinguished. In the past standard criteria to classify this new disorder were lacking. In DSM-5, nine criteria are proposed for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder. The focus is currently on video games as most studies have been done in this field. Prevalence estimations are difficult to interpret due to the lack of standard diagnostic measures and result in a range of the frequency of Internet addiction between 1 % and 4.2 % in the general German population. Rates are higher in younger individuals. For computer game addiction prevalence rates between 0.9 % and 1.7 ?% can be found in adolescents. Despite substantial comorbidity among those affected current research points to addictive media use as a stand-alone disorder. HubMed – addiction


Ghrelin: central and peripheral implications in anorexia nervosa.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2013; 4: 15
Méquinion M, Langlet F, Zgheib S, Dickson S, Dehouck B, Chauveau C, Viltart O

Increasing clinical and therapeutic interest in the neurobiology of eating disorders reflects their dramatic impact on health. Chronic food restriction resulting in severe weight loss is a major symptom described in restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, and they also suffer from metabolic disturbances, infertility, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Restrictive AN, mostly observed in young women, is the third largest cause of chronic illness in teenagers of industrialized countries. From a neurobiological perspective, AN-linked behaviors can be considered an adaptation that permits the endurance of reduced energy supply, involving central and/or peripheral reprograming. The severe weight loss observed in AN patients is accompanied by significant changes in hormones involved in energy balance, feeding behavior, and bone formation, all of which can be replicated in animals models. Increasing evidence suggests that AN could be an addictive behavior disorder, potentially linking defects in the reward mechanism with suppressed food intake, heightened physical activity, and mood disorder. Surprisingly, the plasma levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone that drives food-motivated behavior, are increased. This increase in plasma ghrelin levels seems paradoxical in light of the restrained eating adopted by AN patients, and may rather result from an adaptation to the disease. The aim of this review is to describe the role played by ghrelin in AN focusing on its central vs. peripheral actions. In AN patients and in rodent AN models, chronic food restriction induces profound alterations in the «?ghrelin?» signaling that leads to the development of inappropriate behaviors like hyperactivity or addiction to food starvation and therefore a greater depletion in energy reserves. The question of a transient insensitivity to ghrelin and/or a potential metabolic reprograming is discussed in regard of new clinical treatments currently investigated. HubMed – addiction


An overview and evaluation of combining an addiction liaison nurse outpatient service with hepatitis C outpatient clinics in glasgow, Scotland.

Gastroenterol Nurs. 2013 Mar-Apr; 36(2): 98-104
Brown J, McPherson A, Benson G

A new purpose-built facility for the care of patients with Hepatitis C was opened at Gartnavel General Hospital in Glasgow, Scotland, in 2009, bringing together infectious diseases and gastroenterology disciplines. An addiction liaison nurse outpatient service was established alongside existing Hepatitis C outpatient clinics in October 2010. This service supports staff and patients with Hepatitis C and addiction issues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of combining the Addiction Liaison Nurse outpatient service with the Hepatitis C outpatient clinic. Two methods were used in data collection. A brief questionnaire asking staff their view on the addiction liaison service and addiction issues with regard to Hepatitis C was distributed and completed by personnel assigned to the clinics. Staff were also queried about their view on the number and quality of referrals generated by the addiction liaison clinic. The results from the questionnaire indicate that staff agreed that patients should be abstinent from alcohol and illicit drugs before and during treatment of Hepatitis C. Further research is called for with regard to abstinence from alcohol and drugs before and during Hepatitis C treatment. HubMed – addiction