Ultra-Brief Intervention for Problem Drinkers: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Ultra-brief intervention for problem drinkers: results from a randomized controlled trial.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

PLoS One. 2012; 7(10): e48003
Cunningham JA, Neighbors C, Wild C, Humphreys K

There are a number of evidence-based, in-person clinical inteventions for problem drinkers, but most problem drinkers will never seek such treatments. Reaching the population of non-treatment seeking problem drinkers will require a different approach. Accordingly, this randomized clinical trial evaluated an intervention that has been validated in clinical settings and then modified into an ultra-brief format suitable for use as an indicated public health intervention (i.e., targeting the population of non-treatment seeking problem drinkers).Problem drinkers (N?=?1767) completed a baseline population telephone survey and then were randomized to one of three conditions – a personalized feedback pamphlet condition, a control pamphlet condition, or a no intervention control condition. In the week after the baseline survey, households in the two pamphlet conditions were sent their respective interventions by postal mail addressed to ‘Check Your Drinking.’ Changes in drinking were assessed post intervention at three-month and six-month follow-ups. The follow-up rate was 86% at three-months and 76% at six-months. There was a small effect (p?=?.04) in one of three outcome variables (reduction in AUDIT-C, a composite measure of quantity and frequency of drinking) observed for the personalized feedback pamphlet compared to the no intervention control. No significant differences (p>.05) between groups were observed for the other two outcome variables – number of drinks consumed in the past seven days and highest number of drinks on one occasion.Based on the results of this study, we tentatively conclude that a brief intervention, modified to an ultra-brief, public health format can have a meaningful impact.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00688584.
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Expression of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization is associated with alteration of chromatin remodeling in mice.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

PLoS One. 2012; 7(10): e47527
Botia B, Legastelois R, Alaux-Cantin S, Naassila M

Ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization (EIBS) is proposed to play a role in early and recurring steps of addiction. EIBS does not occur uniformly in all animals even from the same inbred strain. Since recent data demonstrate that epigenetic mechanisms are likely to be involved in the development and the persistence of ethanol-related behaviors, we explored the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in ethanol response after EIBS development.DBA/2J mice were i.p. injected with saline or ethanol (2 g/kg) once a day for 10 consecutive days. At day 17, ethanol-treated mice were split in resistant and sensitized groups. Brains were then removed 30 min after a saline or 2 g/kg ethanol challenge to assess i) gene expression using PCR array targeting 84 epigenetic-related genes and ii) histone deacetylases (HDAC), histone acetylases (HAT) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) activities as well as H4K12 acetylation.Acute ethanol administration decreased dnmt1, esco2 and rps6ka5 genes expression. These genes were similarly altered in sensitized but not in resistant mice after an ethanol challenge, suggesting that resistant mice were tolerant to the transcriptional outcomes of an ethanol challenge. Whereas global HAT or DNMT activity was not affected, global HDAC activity was reduced after an acute ethanol injection. HDAC inhibition occurred in all ethanol-treated mice but with a lesser extent in sensitized animals. As a consequence, H4 acetylation was specifically potentiated in the core of the Nac proportionally to the striatal HDAC activity decrease.The present study highlights that the contrasted behavioral response to an ethanol challenge between resistant and sensitized mice may be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms occurring specifically in the striatum. Here we show that vulnerability to ethanol dependence and relapse could be, at least in part, due to individual variability in acute ethanol-induced epigenetic response.
HubMed – addiction


The evaluation of motivation and addiction to nicotine in smokers attempting to quit smoking.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2012; 80(6): 516-22
Szwed A

Introduction: Smoking cigarettes is a factor which increases the risk of developing many diseases, especially of the circulatory and respiratory systems. Quitting smoking is an essential element of prophylaxis and therapy. The effectiveness of treating the syndrome of nicotine addiction mostly depends on the motivation to give up the habit. The study aimed at evaluating the motivation and the strength of nicotine addiction as well as the factor which motivates smokers for giving up the habit. Material and methods: Sixty-two smokers were included in the study. There were 31 males and 31 females. The mean age of the study subjects was 47.26 ± 14.45. The study was performed using the author-made survey (including for example questions regarding sociodemographic data and motives for quitting smoking), Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (for analyzing degree of nicotine addiction) and Schneider Motivation Test (to evaluate the degree of motivation to quit smoking). Results: Thirty-seven subjects out of the total number of 62 were the least addicted to nicotine. They were highly motivated to give up the habit of smoking. The mean value of motivation depended on the level of education of the subjects and was 7.71-8.50 scores. Health concerns were the reasons to make a decision to quit smoking for the majority of the subjects. Conclusions: Health concern is the most common reason for giving up the habit of smoking. The relationship between the motivation to quit smoking and the sex of the subjects was not observed.
HubMed – addiction


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