The Effects of Capsaicin-Induced Intraoral Mucosal Pain on Jaw Movements in Humans.

The effects of capsaicin-induced intraoral mucosal pain on jaw movements in humans.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Orofac Pain. 2012; 26(4): 277-87
Whittle T, Murray GM, Peck CC

Aims: To determine whether mucosal pain, evoked through a novel topical capsaicin model, has an effect on jaw movement and whether psychologic factors have an association with any pain-induced movement effects. Methods: Mandibular movement was recorded from 26 asymptomatic subjects during free opening and closing, resistant opening jaw movements, and free and standardized chewing, at baseline and in test sessions while the subjects were wearing a custom maxillary mouthguard coated with either capsaicin cream (pain group, 13 subjects) or placebo cream (control group, an additional 13 subjects). All subjects completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Statistical analyses were made with independent t tests and bivariate correlation analyses. Results: Capsaicin induced moderate pain in the pain group, but there were no significant differences between the two groups in the change of kinematic variables from baseline except for a significantly greater increase from baseline in the number of chewing cycles per second (chewing rate) for free (t = 2.74, P = .011) and standardized chewing (t = 2.10, P = .047) in the pain group compared with the control group. In the pain group, the DASS anxiety score was negatively correlated (r = -.70, P = .007), with the change of mean opening velocity from the baseline to the test session in the free opening task, and the DASS depression score was negatively correlated to the increase of chewing rate in the free chewing task from the baseline to the test session (r = -.56, P = .046). Conclusion: Capsaicin-induced mucosal pain resulted in a significant increase in chewing rate but had no effect on amplitude or velocity in opening/closing jaw movements and chewing. Anxiety and depression scores correlated negatively with velocity in free opening jaw movement and chewing rate, respectively.
HubMed – depression

 

Antepartum Depression and Anxiety Associated with Disability in African Women: Cross-Sectional Results from the CDS Study in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

PLoS One. 2012; 7(10): e48396
Bindt C, Appiah-Poku J, Te Bonle M, Schoppen S, Feldt T, Barkmann C, Koffi M, Baum J, Nguah SB, Tagbor H, Guo N, N’goran E, Ehrhardt S,

BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders, particularly unipolar depressive disorders, rank among the top 5 with respect to the global burden of disease. As a major public health concern, antepartum depression and anxiety not only affects the individual woman, but also her offspring. Data on the prevalence of common mental disorders in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We provide results from Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. METHODS: We subsequently recruited and screened n?=?1030 women in the third trimester of their pregnancy for depressed mood, general anxiety, and perceived disability using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9), the 7-item Anxiety Scale (GAD-7), and the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS 2.0, 12-item version). In addition to estimates of means and prevalence, a hierarchical linear regression model was calculated to determine the influence of antepartum depression and anxiety on disability. RESULTS: In Ghana, 26.6% of women showed substantially depressed mood. In Côte d’Ivoire, this figure was even higher (32.9%). Clear indications for a generalized anxiety disorder were observed in 11.4% and 17.4% of pregnant women, respectively. Comorbidity of both conditions was common, affecting about 7.7% of Ghanaian and 12.6% of Ivorian participants. Pregnant women in both countries reported a high degree of disability regarding everyday activity limitations and participation restrictions. Controlled for country and age, depression and anxiety accounted for 33% of variance in the disability score. CONCLUSIONS: Antepartum depression and anxiety were highly prevalent in our sample and contributed substantially to perceived disability. These serious threats to health must be further investigated and more data are needed to comprehensively quantify the problem in sub-Saharan Africa.
HubMed – depression

 

Selection of Suitable Housekeeping Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR in CD4(+) Lymphocytes from Asthmatics with or without Depression.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

PLoS One. 2012; 7(10): e48367
Wang T, Liang ZA, Sandford AJ, Xiong XY, Yang YY, Ji YL, He JQ

No optimal housekeeping genes (HKGs) have been identified for CD4(+) T cells from non-depressive asthmatic and depressive asthmatic adults for normalizing quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays. The aim of present study was to select appropriate HKGs for gene expression analysis in purified CD4(+) T cells from these asthmatics.Three groups of subjects (Non-depressive asthmatic, NDA, n?=?10, Depressive asthmatic, DA, n?=?11, and Healthy control, HC, n?=?10 respectively) were studied. qPCR for 9 potential HKGs, namely RNA, 28S ribosomal 1 (RN28S1), ribosomal protein, large, P0 (RPLP0), actin, beta (ACTB), cyclophilin A (PPIA), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), glucuronidase, beta (GUSB) and ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), was performed. Then the data were analyzed with three different applications namely BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder.The analysis of gene expression data identified B2M and RPLP0 as the most stable reference genes and showed that the level of PPIA was significantly different among subjects of three groups when the two best HKGs identified were applied. Post-hoc analysis by Student-Newman-Keuls correction shows that depressive asthmatics and non-depressive asthmatics exhibited lower expression level of PPIA than healthy controls (p<0.05).B2M and RPLP0 were identified as the most optimal HKGs in gene expression studies involving human blood CD4(+) T cells derived from normal, depressive asthmatics and non-depressive asthmatics. The suitability of using the PPIA gene as the HKG for such studies was questioned due to its low expression in asthmatics. HubMed – depression

 

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