The Relationship Between Attentional Bias and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

The Relationship Between Attentional Bias and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Autism Res. 2013 Mar 21;
Hollocks MJ, Ozsivadjian A, Matthews CE, Howlin P, Simonoff E

Young people with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to have heightened levels of anxiety compared with their typically developing (non-ASD) peers. The reasons for this are poorly understood, and there has been little research investigating the cognitive correlates of anxiety in individuals with ASD. Typically developing youth with anxiety disorders have frequently been found to show an attentional bias toward threatening information. In this study, we examined whether such a bias was also found in young people with ASD and anxiety symptoms. The protocol utilized two versions of the dot-probe paradigm, the first with emotional faces and the second with emotional words. Participants comprised 38 boys with an ASD and 41 typically developing controls aged 10-16 years of age. Those with an ASD displayed higher levels of parent- and child-rated anxiety (both P?HubMed – depression

Depression in Chinese men undergoing different assisted reproductive technique treatments: prevalence and risk factors.

J Assist Reprod Genet. 2013 Aug 2;
Li L, Zhang Y, Zeng D, Li F, Cui D

To explore the prevalence and risk factors for depression in men undergoing different assisted reproductive technique (ART) treatments in Chinese population.This was a prospective study of 844 men undergoing ART treatments. All men were distributed to four groups, according to they received treatments. The treatments included IUI (intrauterine insemination), IVF(in vitro fertilization), ICSI(intra cytoplasmatic sperm injection) and TESA/PESA (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration/testicular sperm aspiration). Their symptoms of depression were measured with use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale(CES-D). Data were collected about age, BMI, education, duration of marriage, duration of infertility, smoking, type of infertility, infertility causes, history of ejaculation failure, and financial burden of the treatment. We estimated the prevalence of depressive symptom in men undergoing different ART and used logistic regression models to identify risk factors for depression in different groups.The overall prevalence of depression was 13.3 % for men undergoing ART treatments: 14.5 % of IUI group, 12.4 % of IVF group, 19.2 % of ICSI group and 6.2 % of TESA/PESA group. Prevalence of depression among IUI group, IVF group and ICSI group were not significantly different. For IUI group, the factors were found to increase depression risk were treatment financial burden and duration of marriage, to decrease depression risk was age. For IVF group, the risk factors independently associated with depression were both male and female infertility, unexplained infertility, and history of ejaculation failure.In a sample of Chinese men undergoing ART treatments, the prevalence of depression was higher than other country. The risk factors for depression varied in different ART treatments groups. when routine screening to identify the sub-group of vulnerable men which need counselling before ART treatments, we should also consider which pattern of ART treatments the man underwent. HubMed – depression

Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr. 2013 Aug 2;
Van Assche L, Luyten P, Van de Ven L, Vandenbulcke M

Contemporary research has increasingly acknowledged the importance of attachment on stress-related processes in ageing. Congruent with this, there has been much research on attachment in older adults over the past three decades. In this article, the main findings of this research are summarized, with a focus on attachment and dementia. Results show that, in general, the number of attachment figures decreases in old age. Moreover, their identity changes as adult children, deceased loved ones and God become more prominent. With relation to the quality of attachment, anxiety in close relations appears to diminish as people age, while attachment avoidance remains relatively stable. Individuals with high levels of attachment security also report greater well-being and a more positive attitude towards ageing compared to persons with low levels of attachment security. Furthermore, individuals characterized by insecure attachment show more behavioral and psychological problems in dementia. Also, caregiver burden, depression, as well as the quality of care giving and future caregiver commitment differ depending on the quality of attachment of the caregiver. There is preliminary evidence for the efficacy of attachment-based interventions in dementia. Finally, there is a need for greater methodological uniformity and the use of measures that are validated for an older population. HubMed – depression