Addictive Behaviors Related to Opioid Use for Chronic Pain: A Population-Based Study.

Addictive behaviors related to opioid use for chronic pain: A population-based study.

Pain. 2013 Jul 29;
Højsted J, Ekholm O, Kurita GP, Juel K, Sjøgren P

The growing body of research showing increased opioid use in patients with chronic pain coupled with concerns regarding addiction encouraged the development of this population-based study. The goal of the study was to investigate the co-occurrence of indicators of addictive behaviors in patients with chronic non-cancer pain in long-term opioid treatment. The study combined data from individual-based Danish Health Survey in 2010 and the official Danish health and socio-economic, individual based registers. From a simple random sample of 25,000 adults (16 years or older) living in Denmark,13,281 individuals were analyzed through multiple logistic regression analyses to assess the association between chronic pain (lasting ? 6 months), opioid use, health behavior, and Body Mass Index. Six potential addictive behaviors were identified: daily smoking; high alcohol intake; illicit drug use in the past year; obesity; long-term use of benzodiazepines; and long-term use of benzodiazepine related drugs. At least two of the six addictive behaviors were observed in 22.6% of the long-term opioid users with chronic pain compared to 11.5% of the non-opioid users with chronic pain and 8.9% of the individuals without chronic pain. Thus, a strong association was demonstrated between long-term opioid use and the clustering of addictive behaviors. An intricate relationship between chronic pain, opioid use and addictive behaviors was observed in this study, which deserves both clinical attention and further research. HubMed – addiction

Drug use among sex workers in Hungary.

Soc Sci Med. 2013 Sep; 93C: 64-69
Móró L, Simon K, Sárosi P

Drug use and sex work are both controversial issues with multiple interesting connections. This article presents findings from the first-ever survey on drug use and sex work in Hungary. The study aimed to chart the prevalence, function, and problems of drug use among various groups of sex workers. Survey forms were collected from 510 participants (average age 29.5 years, 91% female) in and near Budapest over a period of six months. The results show that sex workers have manifold higher lifetime prevalence, 84.3%, of illicit drug use compared with the prevalence of the Hungarian general young adult population, 20.9%. In our sample, it was very rare to perform sex work for alcohol or drugs (5%) or for money to purchase alcohol or drugs (20%). Findings also indicate notable relationships between location-based sex work types and the drugs used. One-third of the street sex workers reported regular amphetamine use, but none reported regular cocaine use. On the contrary, no escorts reported regular amphetamine use, but 38% admitted to regular cocaine use. The location of sex work may pose an additional occupational health risk factor for substance use. Regular use of alcohol was twice as typical (64%) for sex workers who were employed in bars, in salons/parlors, or alone in rented apartments than it was for those working in other indoor locations (33-34%). Furthermore, 74% of street sex workers smoked tobacco compared with 17% of escorts. Problem drug use was roughly estimated by asking the participants about the main problem domains (medical, legal, social, etc.) from the Addiction Severity Index instrument. The most problematic drug was amphetamine, and the most frequent problem was prolonged or excessive drug use. These main findings may contribute to more focused planning of health intervention services, harm reduction measures, outreach programs, and specific treatments. HubMed – addiction

Advances in Immunotherapy of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia CML.

Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2013 Jul 30;
Erika Held SA, Heine A, Mayer KT, Kapelle M, Wolf DG, Brossart P

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors induce sustained disease remissions in chronic myeloid leukemia by exploiting the addiction of this type of leukemia to the activity of the fusion oncogene BCR-ABL. However, these agents fail to eradicate CML stem cells which are ultimately responsible for disease relapses upon treatment discontinuation. Evidence that the immune system can effectively reject CML stem cells potentially leading to patient cure is provided by the experience with patients receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantations. Compelling evidence indicates that more modern, antigen-specific immunotherapeutic approaches are also feasible and hold strong potential to be clinically effective. Amongst these, particularly promising is the use of autologous dendritic cells pulsed with antigens or direct application of in vitro transcribed RNA encoding for leukemia-associated antigens, since this approach allows to circumvent HLA-restriction of the leukemia-associated T cell epitopes that have been eventually identified. Combining these strategies with monoclonal antibodies, such as anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD-1, may help to obtain even stronger immune responses and better clinical results. This narrative review addresses this topic by focusing in particular on the cell-based immunotherapeutic strategies for CML and on the issue of the leukemia-associated antigens to be selected for targeting. HubMed – addiction