The Lack of Association Between Components of Metabolic Syndrome and Treatment Resistance in Depression.

The lack of association between components of metabolic syndrome and treatment resistance in depression.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Apr 12;
Sagud M, Mihaljevic-Peles A, Uzun S, Cusa BV, Kozumplik O, Kudlek-Mikulic S, Mustapic M, Barisic I, Muck-Seler D, Pivac N

RATIONALE: Although a number of studies investigated the link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), the association between MetS and treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is still not clear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between TRD and MetS and/or components of MetS and cardiovascular risk factors. Given the high prevalence of both conditions, the hypothesis was that TRD would be significantly associated with MetS. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 203 inpatients with MDD, assessed for the treatment resistance, MetS and its components, and severity of MDD. Diagnoses and evaluations were made with SCID based on DSM-IV, National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. RESULTS: TRD prior to study entry was found in 26.1 % of patients, while MetS was observed in 33.5 % of patients. The prevalence of MetS did not differ significantly between TRD and non-TRD patients. In addition, the frequency of the altered values of particular components of the MetS or cardiovascular risk factors was not associated with treatment resistance in depressed patients. Patients with TRD were older, had a higher number of lifetime episodes of depression and suicide attempts, and longer duration of MDD compared to non-TRD patients. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of either MetS or the particular components of the MetS and other cardiovascular risk factors was similar between TRD and non-TRD patients. Although there is a bidirectional relationship between depression and MetS, neither MetS nor its components appear to influence treatment resistance to antidepressants. HubMed – depression


Subthreshold depression in adolescence: a systematic review.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 12;
Bertha EA, Balázs J

In adolescence, the number of depressive symptoms is rising notably. Individuals may have relevant depressive symptoms without meeting the full criteria of a major depressive episode (MDE), a condition referred to as subthreshold depression (sD). This article presents a review on adolescent sD examining the prevalence, the quality of life (QoL), the risk of developing MDE, and preventive programs available for adolescents living with sD. A systematic literature search from the year of the introduction of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) until 2012 (18 years) was conducted with a special focus on adolescent sD. Data from 27 studies were included into this review. The results show high prevalence of sD among adolescents, with a negative impact on QoL, and provide evidence that sD is a significant risk indicator of later MDE; therefore, individuals with sD represent good targets for preventive interventions. Our review highlights the fact that sD is a significant health problem among adolescents indeed, and adolescents with sD could be a subgroup of youth, who need further help to reduce their clinically significant depressive symptoms for the successful prevention of a later MDE. HubMed – depression


Analysis of brief screening tools for the detection of postpartum depression: Comparisons of the PRAMS 6-item instrument, PHQ-9, and structured interviews.

Arch Womens Ment Health. 2013 Apr 12;
Davis K, Pearlstein T, Stuart S, O’Hara M, Zlotnick C

Postpartum depression (PPD) is an important mental health issue affecting approximately 10 % of women. Self-report screening measures represent utility for detecting PPD in both clinical and research settings. The current study sought to inspect the accuracy of two screening measures compared to clinical interviews. As part of an ongoing clinical trial, 1,392 women between the ages of 18 and 45 were screened for PPD using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and a six-item scale developed from CDC Pregnancy Risk Assessment questions (PRAMS-6). Three item subscales of the PRAMS-6 were also inspected-three depression (PRAMS-3D) and three anxiety items (PRAMS-3A). Receiver operating characteristics compared the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9, PRAMS-6, PRAMS-3D, and PRAMS-3A to both the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The PHQ-9, PRAMS-6, and PRAMS-3D all showed moderate accuracy at diagnosing PPD. Diagnostic cut points are provided. The PRAMS-6 instrument is a brief and effective screening tool for PPD. The time frame of symptom assessment may account for some variability in accuracy between the PHQ-9 and PRAMS screening instruments. HubMed – depression


Cognitive correlates of verbal memory and verbal fluency in schizophrenia, and differential effects of various clinical symptoms between male and female patients.

Schizophr Res. 2013 Apr 8;
Brébion G, Villalta-Gil V, Autonell J, Cervilla J, Dolz M, Foix A, Haro JM, Usall J, Vilaplana M, Ochoa S

BACKGROUND: Impairment of higher cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia might stem from perturbation of more basic functions, such as processing speed. Various clinical symptoms might affect cognitive efficiency as well. Notably, previous research has revealed the role of affective symptoms on memory performance in this population, and suggested sex-specific effects. METHOD: We conducted a post-hoc analysis of an extensive neuropsychological study of 88 patients with schizophrenia. Regression analyses were conducted on verbal memory and verbal fluency data to investigate the contribution of semantic organisation and processing speed to performance. The role of negative and affective symptoms and of attention disorders in verbal memory and verbal fluency was investigated separately in male and female patients. RESULTS: Semantic clustering contributed to verbal recall, and a measure of reading speed contributed to verbal recall as well as to phonological and semantic fluency. Negative symptoms affected verbal recall and verbal fluency in the male patients, whereas attention disorders affected these abilities in the female patients. Furthermore, depression affected verbal recall in women, whereas anxiety affected it in men. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the association of processing speed with cognitive efficiency in patients with schizophrenia. They also confirm the previously observed sex-specific associations of depression and anxiety with memory performance in these patients, and suggest that negative symptoms and attention disorders likewise are related to cognitive efficiency differently in men and women. HubMed – depression



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