The Effect of Acute Swim Stress and Training in the Water Maze on Hippocampal Synaptic Activity as Well as Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus of Freely Moving Rats: Revisiting Swim-Induced LTP Reinforcement.

The effect of acute swim stress and training in the water maze on hippocampal synaptic activity as well as plasticity in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats: Revisiting swim-induced LTP reinforcement.

Hippocampus. 2013 Jul 8;
Tabassum H, Frey JU

Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is a cellular model of learning and memory. An early form of LTP (E-LTP) can be reinforced into its late form (L-LTP) by various behavioral interactions within a specific time window (‘behavioral LTP-reinforcement’). Depending on the type and procedure used, various studies have shown that stress differentially affects synaptic plasticity. Under low stress, such as novelty detection or mild foot shocks, E-LTP can be transformed into L-LTP in the rat dentate gyrus (DG). A reinforcing effect of a 2 min swim, however, has only been shown in (Korz and Frey, 2003; Korz and Frey, 2005; Ahmed et al., 2006; Sajikumar et al., 2007) so far. We have re-investigated these studies using the same as well as an improved recording technique which allowed the recording of field excitatory post synaptic potentials (fEPSP) and the population spike amplitude (PSA) at their places of generation in freely moving rats. We show that acute swim stress led to a long-term depression (LTD) in baseline values of PSA and partially fEPSP. In contrast to earlier studies a LTP-reinforcement by swimming could never be reproduced. Our results indicate that 2 min swim stress influenced synaptic potentials as well as E-LTP negatively. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. HubMed – depression


Clinical depression, antidepressant use and risk of future cardiovascular disease.

Eur J Epidemiol. 2013 Jul 9;
Rahman I, Humphreys K, Bennet AM, Ingelsson E, Pedersen NL, Magnusson PK

Many studies have shown that depression contributes to a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Use of antidepressants and its association with CVD development has also been investigated previously but the results have been conflicting. Further, depression and use of antidepressants have been more widely studied in relation to coronary heart disease rather than stroke. A population-based cohort study consisting of 36,654 Swedish elderly twins was conducted with a follow-up of maximum 4 years. Information on exposures, outcomes and covariates were collected from the Swedish national patient registers, the Swedish prescribed drug registry and the Swedish twin registry. Depression and antidepressant use were both associated with CVD development. The risk was most pronounced among depressed patients who did not use antidepressants (HR 1. 48, CI 1.10-2.00). When assessing the two main CVD outcomes coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke separately, the predominant association was found for ischemic stroke while it was absent for coronary heart disease. The association between depression and stroke also remained significant when restricting to depression diagnoses occurring at least 10 years before baseline. The study supports that depression is a possible risk factor for development of CVD. Moreover, the hazard rate for CVD outcomes was highest among depressed patients who had not used antidepressants. The association with clinical depression is more marked in relation to stroke and disappears in relation to development of coronary heart disease. HubMed – depression


Assessing apathy in everyday clinical practice with the short-form Lille Apathy Rating Scale.

Mov Disord. 2013 Jul 8;
Dujardin K, Sockeel P, Carette AS, Delliaux M, Defebvre L

Apathy is an invalidating behavioral disorder that must always be screened for and assessed in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS) has been validated in several different contexts, but the lengthy administration time means that it is mostly recommended for research use. The aim of the present study was to validate a short form of the LARS for use in everyday practice.In total, 416 patients with PD and 56 healthy controls participated in the study. Apathy, depression, motor symptoms, and overall cognitive efficiency were assessed. The most discriminant items of the LARS for apathy detection were selected using multiple indicators.A subset of 12 items (constituting the short-form LARS) showed the best convergence. Concurrent and criterion-related validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and inter-rater reliability were very good.The short-form LARS is a reliable, practical, patient interview-based instrument for assessing apathy in everyday clinical practice. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. HubMed – depression