Cross-Reactivities and Structure-Reactivity Relationships of Six Benzodiazepines to EMIT(®) Immunoassay.

Cross-reactivities and structure-reactivity relationships of six benzodiazepines to EMIT(®) immunoassay.

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2013 Jun 10; 84C: 168-172
Bertol E, Vaiano F, Furlanetto S, Mari F

Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently prescribed drugs due to their sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, muscle relaxant and antiepileptic properties. Considering the high consumption of benzodiazepines worldwide, there is increased potential for addiction and abuse in cases of crime, driving under the influence of drugs, suicide and drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). For these reasons, this class of drugs and their metabolites are frequently present in both clinical and forensic cases. In a forensic toxicology laboratory, typical screening analysis for benzodiazepine involves various immunoassay screening methods. The present study investigates the cross-reactivity profiles of six benzodiazepines not included in the manufacturer’s instructions (3-hydroxy-flunitrazepam, 7-amino-nitrazepam, brotizolam, delorazepam, pinazepam, ?-hydroxy-midazolam) to EMIT(®) II Plus Benzodiazepine Assay. Pinazepam, delorazepam and brotizolam are the most reactive molecules, while the other ones present a very low cross-reactivity. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to confirm the concentrations of the spiked urines for immunoassay test and to make a comparison between the quantitative results of the different methods. Structure-reactivity relationships to EMIT(®) II Plus Benzodiazepine Assay were also evaluated. This paper draws attention to the problem of careless use of immunoassay tests for forensic purposes as they may provide false positive and/or negative results. HubMed – addiction


Predicting biopsychosocial outcomes for heroin users in primary care treatment: a prospective longitudinal cohort study.

Br J Gen Pract. 2013 Jul; 63(612): 499-505
Parmenter J, Mitchell C, Keen J, Oliver P, Rowse G, Neligan I, Keil C, Mathers N

Background Opiate substitution treatment for heroin users reduces mortality, illicit drug use, crime, and risk-taking behaviour, and improves physical, mental and social functioning. Few extended studies have been carried out in UK primary care to study factors predicting recovery. Aim To establish whether primary care opiate substitution treatment is associated with improvements in outcomes over 11 years, in delivering recovery, and to identify predictive factors. Design and setting A prospective longitudinal cohort study, with repeated measures in the Primary Care Addiction Service, Sheffield, 1999-2011. Method A total of 123 eligible patients were assessed using the Opiate Treatment Index at entry to treatment and at 1, 5, and 11 years. Clinical records were used to assess factors including employment and discharge status. Results At 11 years, there was a high rate of drug-free discharge (22.0%) and medically-assisted recovery (30.9%), and low mortality (6.5%). Continuous treatment was associated with being discharged drug free (P = 0.005). For those still in treatment, there were highly significant reductions in heroin use and injecting, and significantly improved psychosocial functioning. There were strong positive correlations between mental health, physical health, and social functioning. Patients in employment had significantly better psychological and social functioning (P = 0.017, P = 0.007, respectively). Conclusion Opiate substitution treatment is associated over 11 years with full recovery, drug-free discharge and medically-assisted recovery. There is a strong association between the psychosocial variables, suggesting that intervention in any one of these areas may have extended benefits, by impacting on related variables and employment. The best predictor of a drug-free discharge was continuous uninterrupted treatment. HubMed – addiction


Test-Retest Reliability and Gender Differences in the Sexual Discounting Task Among Cocaine-Dependent Individuals.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013 Jul 8;
Johnson MW, Bruner NR

The Sexual Discounting Task uses the delay discounting framework to examine sexual HIV risk behavior. Previous research showed task performance to be significantly correlated with self-reported HIV risk behavior in cocaine dependence. Test-retest reliability and gender differences had remained unexamined. The present study examined the test-retest reliability of the Sexual Discounting Task. Cocaine-dependent individuals (18 men, 13 women) completed the task in two laboratory visits ?7 days apart. Participants selected photographs of individuals with whom they were willing to have casual sex. Among these, participants identified the individual most (and least) likely to have a sexually transmitted infection (STI), and the individual with whom he or she most (and least) wanted to have sex. In reference to these individuals, participants rated their likelihood of having unprotected sex versus waiting to have sex with a condom, at various delays. A money delay discounting task was also completed at the first visit. Significant differences in discounting among partner conditions were shown. Differential stability was demonstrated by significant, positive correlations between test and retest for all four partner conditions. Absolute stability was demonstrated by statistical equivalence tests between test and retest, and also supported by a lack of significant differences between test and retest. Men generally discounted significantly more than women for sexual outcomes but not money. Results suggest the Sexual Discounting Task to be a reliable measure in cocaine-dependent individuals, which supports its use as a repeated measure in clinical research, for example, studies examining acute drug effects on sexual risk and the effects of addiction treatment and HIV prevention interventions on sexual risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). HubMed – addiction