A Comparative Study of the Effects of Vitamin C, Sirolimus, and Paclitaxel on the Growth of Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells for Cardiovascular Medical Device Applications.

A comparative study of the effects of vitamin C, sirolimus, and paclitaxel on the growth of endothelial and smooth muscle cells for cardiovascular medical device applications.

Drug Des Devel Ther. 2013; 7: 529-44
Kakade S, Mani G

Antiproliferative drugs such as sirolimus (SIR) and paclitaxel (PAT) are currently released from stents and vascular grafts to inhibit the growth of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), thereby preventing neointimal hyperplasia. However, these drugs delay or impair the growth of endothelial cells (ECs) on implant surfaces causing late thrombosis. Hence, there is a need to use alternative drugs in these implants to encourage the growth of ECs and to inhibit the growth of SMCs. Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid [L-AA]) is one such drug which has been shown to encourage EC growth and inhibit SMC growth when orally administered or added directly to the cell cultures. In this research, four sets of in vitro cell culture experiments were carried out to compare the effects of L-AA, SIR, and PAT on the growth of ECs and SMCs under similar conditions, and to compare the effects of different doses of L-AA to determine the optimal dose for promoting maximum EC growth and inhibiting SMC growth. The ECs and SMCs treated with different drugs were characterized for their viability and proliferation, and morphology using the quantitative resazurin assay (as well as qualitative fluorescence microscopy characterization) and phase contrast microscopy, respectively, for up to 7 days. Also, the phenotype of ECs was characterized using immunofluorescence microscopy. Both SIR and PAT significantly inhibited the EC growth while L-AA significantly encouraged EC growth even more than that of the controls with no drugs. Also, L-AA significantly inhibited SMC growth although the inhibitory effect was inferior to that of SIR and PAT. The L-AA dosage study demonstrated that 100 ?g and 300 ?g of L-AA showed maximum EC growth after 7 days when compared to other dosages (1 ?g, 500 ?g, and 1000 ?g) of L-AA and controls investigated in this study. Also, the 100 ?g and 300 ?g L-AA doses significantly inhibited the SMC growth. Thus, this study demonstrates that L-AA is a promising drug for potential use in stents and vascular grafts, to promote their endothelialization and inhibit neointimal hyperplasia. HubMed – drug


Topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in mild lagophthalmos.

Clin Ophthalmol. 2013; 7: 1333-8
Itakura M, Itakura H, Kashima T, Akiyama H, Kishi S

Administration of topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in dry eye. We consecutively studied seven eyes in seven cases (three males and four females) with mild lagophthalmos (three cases after eyelid surgery, two cases of incomplete facial nerve palsy, and two cases of senile ectropion) during the treatment of corneal disorders with rebamipide eye drops four times daily for 2 weeks. The fluorescein corneal staining (FCS) score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer’s test, and decimal visual acuity were examined. Ocular symptoms were examined and scored by questioning each patient before and after administration of the drug. In all seven eyes, inferior corneal erosion decreased or disappeared within 2 weeks after administration of topical rebamipide. The FCS score was significantly improved (P < 0.05). The TBUT was significantly extended from 2.9 ± 0.5 seconds to 5.2 ± 0.4 seconds (P < 0.05). The scores of ocular symptoms, such as eye pain, dryness, blurred vision, and foreign body sensations, were significantly improved (P < 0.05).Topical rebamipide was effective for corneal disorders in mild lagophthalmos. This drug may provide a novel approach to treat lagophthalmos. HubMed – drug


Intraocular pressure reduction using a fixed combination of timolol maleate 0.5% and brimonidine tartrate 0.2% administered three times daily.

Clin Ophthalmol. 2013; 7: 1269-73
Moisseiev E, Kurtz S, Lazar M, Shemesh G

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fixed combination of timolol maleate 0.5% + brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Combigan®) for reduction for intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma when the dose frequency is increased from twice to three times daily.The patients included had either primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Those who were previously on treatment completed a drug washout period prior to inclusion. IOP was measured at baseline, after 4 weeks of treatment with Combigan twice daily, and again after a further 4 weeks of Combigan three times daily. Blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were also recorded at each assessment.Thirty-one eyes from 31 patients were included. Increasing the Combigan dose frequency resulted in a statistically significant (P < 0.001) additional reduction in IOP of 2.25 ± 1.18 mmHg, corresponding to a further 10.3% reduction in IOP from baseline. No local or systemic adverse effects were documented.Treatment with Combigan three times daily was more effective in reducing IOP than the twice-daily regimen, with no increase in adverse effects. HubMed – drug