[The Concept of Behavioral Addiction and Limits of the Term Addiction.]

[The concept of behavioral addiction and limits of the term addiction.]

Nervenarzt. 2013 Apr 21;
Mann K, Fauth-Bühler M, Seiferth N, Heinz A,

The numbers of persons with a prevalence for behavioral addiction are rising especially among the young. Psychiatrists and psychotherapists are still awaiting indications for diagnostic classification and treatment approaches. We discuss the nosological aspects and suggest categorizing gambling and excessive computer and internet use as behavioral addictions. In specific cases the addiction model can also be applied for excessive sexual behavior, compulsive buying and obesity. HubMed – addiction


Nardilysin in human brain diseases: both friend and foe.

Amino Acids. 2013 Apr 19;
Bernstein HG, Stricker R, Dobrowolny H, Steiner J, Bogerts B, Trübner K, Reiser G

Nardilysin is a metalloprotease that cleaves peptides, such as dynorphin-A, ?-neoendorphin, and glucagon, at the N-terminus of arginine and lysine residues in dibasic moieties. It has various functionally important molecular interaction partners (heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor, tumour necrosis factor-?-converting enzyme, neuregulin 1, beta-secretase 1, malate dehydrogenase, P42(IP4)/centaurin-?1, the histone H3 dimethyl Lys4, and others) and is involved in a plethora of normal brain functions. Less is known about possible implications of nardilysin for brain diseases. This review, which includes some of our own recent findings, attempts to summarize the current knowledge on possible roles of nardilysin in Alzheimer disease, Down syndrome, schizophrenia, mood disorders, alcohol abuse, heroin addiction, and cancer. We herein show that nardilysin is a Janus-faced enzyme with regard to brain pathology, being probably neuropathogenic in some diseases, but neuroprotective in others. HubMed – addiction


Involvement of opioidergic and nitrergic systems in memory acquisition and exploratory behaviors in cholestatic mice.

Behav Pharmacol. 2013 Apr 17;
Nasehi M, Piri M, Abbolhasani K, Zarrindast MR

Bile duct ligation (BDL) is an animal model used in cholestatic disease research. Both opioidergic and nitrergic systems are known to be involved in cholestasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible interaction between these two systems in BDL-induced memory formation and exploratory behaviors in mice. Male mice weighing 25-30 g were divided into nonoperated controls, sham-operated, and BDL groups. One-trial step-down and hole-board paradigms were used to assess memory acquisition and exploratory behaviors, respectively. Cholestasis did not alter memory acquisition while increasing exploratory behaviors 7 days after BDL. A pretraining intraperitoneal injection of L-arginine (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg), or naloxone (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg) did not alter memory acquisition or exploratory behaviors, whereas morphine (5 and 7.5 mg/kg) decreased memory acquisition in sham-operated animals. Moreover, although injection of L-NAME and naloxone exerted no effect on memory acquisition in the 7 days post-BDL mice, L-arginine (100 and 200 mg/kg) and morphine (2.5, 5, and 7.5 mg/kg) injection reduced it. In contrast, L-NAME and naloxone, but not morphine or L-arginine, reduced the BDL-induced exploratory behaviors. Coadministration of subthreshold doses of morphine (1.25 mg/kg) and L-arginine (50 mg/kg) caused a memory deficit in 7 days post-BDL mice. However, the memory deficit induced by the effective doses of morphine (2.5 mg/kg) or L-arginine (200 mg/kg) in these mice was restored by the administration of either naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) or L-NAME (40 mg/kg). In addition, naloxone and L-NAME reduced the exploratory behaviors in L-arginine-pretreated mice but not in morphine-pretreated mice. We conclude that there appears to be a synergistic effect between opioidergic and nitrergic systems on memory acquisition and exploratory behaviors in cholestatic mice. HubMed – addiction