Prevention and Management of Variceal Hemorrhage.

Prevention and management of variceal hemorrhage.

Int J Hepatol. 2013; 2013: 434609
Kim DH, Park JY

Variceal hemorrhage is a common and devastating complication of portal hypertension and is a leading cause of death in patients with cirrhosis. The management of gastroesophageal varices has evolved over the last decade resulting in improved mortality and morbidity rates. Regarding the primary prevention of variceal hemorrhaging, nonselective ? -blockers should be the first-line therapy in all patients with medium to large varices and in patients with small varices associated with high-risk features such as red wale marks and/or advanced cirrhosis. EVL should be offered in cases of intolerance or side effects to ? -blockers, or for patients at high-risk for variceal bleeding who have medium or large varices with red wale marks or advanced liver cirrhosis. In acute bleeding, vasoactive agents should be initiated along with antibiotics followed by EVL or endoscopic sclerotherapy (if EVL is technically difficult) within the first 12 hours of presentation. Where available, terlipressin is the preferred agent because of its safety profile and it represents the only drug with a proven efficacy in improving survival. All patients surviving an episode of bleeding should undergo further prophylaxis to prevent rebleeding with EVL and nonselective ? -blockers. HubMed – drug


Evaluation of MGIT 960 System for the Second-Line Drugs Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Tuberc Res Treat. 2013; 2013: 108401
Kim H, Seo M, Park YK, Yoo JI, Lee YS, Chung GT, Ryoo S

Many laboratories validate DST of the second-line drugs by BACTEC MGIT 960 system. The objective of this study is to evaluate the critical concentration and perform DST for the 2nd line drugs. We evaluated 193 clinical strains of M. tuberculosis isolated from patients in South Korea. Testing the critical concentration of six second-line drugs was performed by MGIT 960 and compared with L-J proportion method. The critical concentration was determined to establish the most one that gave the difference between drug resistance and susceptibility in MGIT960 system. Good agreement of the following concentrations was found: Concordance was 95% for 0.5? ? g/mL of moxifloxacin; 93.6%, 1.0? ? g/mL of levofloxacin; 97.5%, 2.5? ? g/mL of kanamycin; 90.6%, 2.5? ? g/mL of capreomycin; 86.2%, 5.0? ? g/mL of ethionamide; and 90.8%, 2.0? ? g/mL of ?-aminosalicylic acid. The critical concentrations of the four drugs, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, kanamycin, and capreomycin, were concordant and reliable for testing 2nd line drug resistance. Further study of ethionamide and ? -aminosalicylic acid is required. HubMed – drug



RSC Adv. 2013 Jan 24; 3(16): 5547-5555
Gustafson TP, Dergunov SA, Akers WJ, Cao Q, Magalotti S, Achilefu S, Pinkhassik E, Berezin MY

Rapid-release drug delivery systems present a new paradigm in emergency care treatments. Such systems combine a long shelf life with the ability to provide a significant dose of the drug to the bloodstream in the shortest period of time. Until now, development of delivery formulations has concentrated on slow release systems to ensure a steady concentration of the drug. To address the need for quick release system, we created hollow polyacrylate nanocapsules with nanometer-thin porous walls. Burst release occurs upon interaction with blood components that leads to escape of the cargo. The likely mechanism of release involves a conformational change of the polymer shell caused by binding albumin. To demonstrate this concept, a near-infrared fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) was incorporated inside the nanocapsules. ICG-loaded nanocapsules demonstrated remarkable shelf life in aqueous buffers with no release of ICG for twelve months. Rapid release of the dye was demonstrated first in vitro using albumin solution and serum. SEM and light scattering analysis demonstrated the retention of the nanocapsule architecture after the release of the dye upon contact with albumin. In vivo studies using fluorescence lifetime imaging confirmed quick discharge of ICG from the nanocapsules following intravenous injection. HubMed – drug


Alemtuzumab use in relapsed and refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a history and discussion of future rational use.

Ther Adv Hematol. 2012 Dec; 3(6): 375-89
Warner JL, Arnason JE

In this review, we outline the clinical experience with single-agent alemtuzumab as a treatment for relapsed and refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in both prospective and retrospective trials and describe the multiagent use of the drug with the goal of updating clinicians on recent developments and possible future rational combinations. Alemtuzumab, an antibody targeting the lymphocyte-specific surface marker CD52, is an approved agent for the treatment of CLL. Despite its demonstrated efficacy, likely secondary to concerns regarding infectious complications, it is most commonly used in the relapsed and refractory setting. Given alemtuzumab’s unique mechanism of action it has been demonstrated to have activity in disease that is refractory to both alkylating agents and purine analogs. Furthermore, it has activity in TP53-mutated disease, which has the worst prognosis of any subset of CLL. Alemtuzumab has greater efficacy on circulating disease relative to nodal disease. Rational combinations are attempting to use these attributes to increase response rates in patients with relapsed and refractory disease. HubMed – drug



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