Gemfibrozil Modulates Cytochrome P450 and Peroxisome Proliferation-Inducible Enzymes in the Liver of the Yellow European Eel (Anguilla Anguilla).

Gemfibrozil modulates cytochrome P450 and peroxisome proliferation-inducible enzymes in the liver of the yellow European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013 Jul 5;
Lyssimachou A, Thibaut R, Gisbert E, Porte C

The human lipid regulator gemfibrozil (GEM) has been shown to induce peroxisome proliferation in rodents leading to hepatocarcinogenesis. Since GEM is found at biological active concentrations in the aquatic environment, the present study investigates the effects of this drug on the yellow European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Eels were injected with different concentrations of GEM (0.1 to 200 ?g/g) and sampled 24- and 96-h post-injection. GEM was shown to inhibit CYP1A, CYP3A and CYP2K-like catalytic activities 24-h post-injection, but at 96-h post-injection, only CYP1A was significantly altered in fish injected with the highest GEM dose. On the contrary, GEM had little effect on the phase II enzymes examined (UDP-glucuronyltransferase and glutathione-S-transferase). Peroxisome proliferation inducible enzymes (liver peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase and catalase) were very weakly induced. No evidence of a significant effect on the endocrine system of eels was observed in terms of plasmatic steroid levels or testosterone esterification in the liver. HubMed – drug


Anticipating Early Fatality: Friends’, Schoolmates’ and Individual Perceptions of Fatality on Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

J Youth Adolesc. 2013 Jul 5;
Haynie DL, Soller B, Williams K

Past research indicates that anticipating adverse outcomes, such as early death (fatalism), is associated positively with adolescents’ likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Health researchers and criminologists have argued that fatalism influences present risk taking in part by informing individuals’ motivation for delaying gratification for the promise of future benefits. While past findings highlight the association between the anticipation of early death and a number of developmental outcomes, no known research has assessed the impact of location in a context characterized by high perceptions of fatality. Using data from Add Health and a sample of 9,584 adolescents (51 % female and 71 % white) nested in 113 schools, our study builds upon prior research by examining the association between friends’, school mates’, and individual perceptions of early fatality and adolescent risk behaviors. We test whether friends’ anticipation of being killed prior to age 21 or location in a school where a high proportion of the student body subscribes to attitudes of high fatality, is associated with risky behaviors. Results indicate that friends’ fatalism is positively associated with engaging in violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use after controlling for individual covariates and prior individual risk-taking. Although friends’ delinquency accounts for much of the effect of friends’ fatalism on violence, none of the potential intervening variables fully explain the effect of friends’ fatalism on youth involvement in non-violent delinquency and drug use. Our results underscore the importance of friendship contextual effects in shaping adolescent risk-taking behavior and the very serious consequences perceptions of fatality have for adolescents’ involvement in delinquency and drug use. HubMed – drug


[Construction of RNAi vector of dopamine D1 receptor and identification of its silencing effects.]

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2013 Jun; 38(6): 570-575
Li H, Xu J, Yuan G, Li J, Chen Z

Objective: To construct dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1) expression interference vectors to study the role of DRD1 in nerve cells and lay a foundation for drug development in anti-convulsion. Methods: Based on DRD1 gene sequence in GenBank, 10 interfere vectors of DRD1 were designed. Liposomal was used to transfect NG-108-15 and the transfect effect was assayed by GFP. With realtime PCR and Western blot, the DRD1 expression was detected. Results: The 10 constructed interfere vectors transfected into NG-108-15 cells by liposomal method and inhibited DRD1 mRNA and protein expression. DRD1 mRNA expression in NG-108-15 cells transfected with pGPU6-GFP-Neo-si-DRD1-5 was the lowest whereas DRD1 protein expression in NG-108-15 cells transfected with pGPU6-GFP-Neo-si-DRD1-1, -2, -6, -7 was the lowest. Conclusion: DRD1 expression interference vector is successfully constructed. HubMed – drug