Combined Approach With Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Pharmacogenomics in Renal Transplant Recipients.

Combined approach with therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacogenomics in renal transplant recipients.

Indian J Nephrol. 2013 Jan; 23(1): 71-3
Manvizhi S, Mathew BS, Fleming DH, Basu G, John GT

In patients undergoing renal transplantation, dose individualization for tacrolimus is routinely achieved with therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The patient started on 5.5 mg/day of tacrolimus had a significantly elevated tacrolimus trough concentration. The tacrolimus dose was regularly reduced following TDM at many time periods in the post transplant period but the tacrolimus concentration was consistently elevated. Genomic analysis done after four years revealed mutations in the genes encoding for CYP3A5 and MDR1 (2677G > T). Pharmacogenomics alongside TDM, will soon emerge as the backbone of dose individualization. But for genomics to be beneficial, it should be advocated in the pre-transplant or early post transplant period. HubMed – drug


Encephalopathy secondary to isoniazid in patients on hemodialysis.

Indian J Nephrol. 2013 Jan; 23(1): 54-6
Abbas MT, Khan FY, Sulimon S, Baidaa A

We report isoniazid (INH)-induced encephalopathy in two male patients on hemodialysis. One of them had tuberculous adenitis, and the other had pulmonary tuberculosis. Both were given rifampicin, INH, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol with pyridoxine 40 mg/day. Two patients developed disturbances in consciousness. After excluding other causes, INH-induced encephalopathy was suspected so the drug was stopped and dose of pyridoxine increased. Both patients retained their consciousness within 1 week and were discharged. HubMed – drug


Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in medical, surgical, and intensive care unit: A comparative study.

Indian J Nephrol. 2013 Jan; 23(1): 24-9
Singh TB, Rathore SS, Choudhury TA, Shukla VK, Singh DK, Prakash J

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in hospitalized patients. There are few comparative studies on hospital-acquired AKI (HAAKI) in medical, surgical, and ICU patients. This study was conducted to compare the epidemiological characteristics, clinical profiles, and outcomes of HAAKI among these three units. All adult patients (>18 years) of either gender who developed AKI based on RIFLE criteria (using serum creatinine), 48 h after hospitalization were included in the study. Patients of acute on chronic renal failure and AKI in pregnancy were excluded. Incidence of HAAKI in medical, surgical, and ICU wards were 0.54%, 0.72%, and 2.2% respectively (P < 0.0001). There was no difference in age distribution among the groups, but onset of HAAKI was earliest in the medical ward (P = 0.001). RIFLE-R was the most common AKI in medical (39.2%) and ICU (50%) wards but in the surgical ward, it was RIFLE-F that was most common (52.6%). Acute tubular necrosis was more common in ICU (P = 0.043). Most common etiology of HAAKI in medical unit was drug induced (39.2%), whereas in surgical and ICU, it was sepsis (34% and 35.2% respectively). Mortality in ICU, surgical and medical units were 73.5%, 43.42%, and 37.2%, respectively (P = 0.003). Length of hospital stay in surgical, ICU and medical units were different (P = 0.007). This study highlights that the characters of HAAKI are different in some aspects among different hospital settings. HubMed – drug


Microbiological aspects of peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

Indian J Nephrol. 2013 Jan; 23(1): 12-7
Vikrant S, Guleria RC, Kanga A, Verma BS, Singh D, Dheer SK

The objective of the study was to identify the microbiological spectrum and drug-sensitivity pattern of peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. This was a prospective study done over a period of a year-and-a-half at a tertiary-care hospital in a hilly state of India. The effluent dialysate bags from 36 consecutive patients with peritonitis were studied. One hunderd ml dialysate fluid was processed under aseptic conditions by lysis centrifugation method. Microscopy and culture was done from the deposits for bacteriological, fungal, and mycobacterial isolates. They were identified by colony morphology and their biochemical reactions. Drug susceptibility testing was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. In 36 dialysates, 33 (91.6%) dialysates were culture-positive and in 3 (8.4%), the culture was negative. A total of 36 microorganisms were isolated in 33 cultures. Among the 36 microorganisms, 19 (52.8%) isolates were gram-positive, 10 (27.8%) were gram-negative, 5 (13.9%) were fungi, and 2 (5.6%) were mycobacterial isolates. All gram-positive organisms were sensitive to ampicillin, amoxi-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, clindamycin, and vancomycin. Neither a methicillin-resistant Staphylococci aureus nor a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus was isolated in gram-positive isolates. Gram-negative organisms were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, gentamicin, piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem. One of the gram-negative isolate was an extended spectrum beta-lactamase producer. Gram-positive peritonitis was more frequent than gram-negative peritonitis in our continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Mycobacterial causes were responsible for peritonitis in patients with culture-negative peritonitis which was not responding to the conventional antimicrobial therapy. HubMed – drug