Ventral Encoding of Functional Affordances: A Neural Pathway for Identifying Errors in Action.

Ventral encoding of functional affordances: A neural pathway for identifying errors in action.

Brain Cogn. 2013 May 31; 82(3): 274-282
Mizelle JC, Kelly RL, Wheaton LA

Functional tool usage is a critical aspect of our daily lives. Not only must we know which tools to use for a specific action goal, we must also know how to manipulate those tools in meaningful way to achieve the goal of the action. The purpose of this study was to identify the regions of the brain critical to supporting the process of understanding errors in tool manipulation. Using fMRI, neural activations were recorded while subjects were presented with images demonstrating typical action scenes (screwdriver used on a screw), but with the tool being manipulated either correctly (screwdriver held by handle) or incorrectly (screwdriver held by bit rather than handle). Activations in fMRI for identifying correct over incorrect tool manipulation were seen along the canonical parietofrontal action network, while activations for identifying incorrect over correct tool manipulation were primarily seen at superior temporal areas and insula. We expand our hypotheses about ventral brain networks identifying contextual error to further suggest mechanisms for understanding functional tool actions, which collectively we regard as functional affordances. This proposes a fundamental role for ventral brain areas in functional action understanding. HubMed – rehab

 

Dynamical changes of occlusion and articulation during treatment of mandibular angle fractures.

Stomatologija. 2013; 15(1): 12-9
Baltrusaityte A, Surna A, Pileicikiene G, Kubilius R, Gleiznys A, Baltrusaitis M

Outcomes of mandibular fractures were stated as frequent reason of temporomandibular joint dysfunctions. The objective of this study was to evaluate dynamical changes of occlusion and articulation during treatment of mandibular angle fractures. 12 subjects with mandibular angle fractures underwent analysis of occlusion and articulation in all stages of healing. Findings of investigations were presented in Posselt’s and intercondylar axis diagrams, occlusiograms and relative force vs. time graphs. Comparison of results in first day, 1, 3 and 6 months after trauma showed that despite typical process of fragments healing and good fixation but with insufficiently balanced occlusion and posttraumatic discoordination of muscle activity first signs of TMJ articular discs dysfunction were found. Our results confirm the concept that early rehabilitation of mandibular function and occlusion are essential to prevent developing functional disorders of TMJ. HubMed – rehab

 

[Traumatic elbow dislocations in bouldering.]

Unfallchirurg. 2013 Jun 5;
Sandmann GH, Siebenlist S, Lenich A, Neumaier M, Ahrens P, Kirchhoff C, Braun KF, Lucke M, Biberthaler P

Bouldering is a new trend sport which has become popular in recent years. From April 2011 to June 2012 a total of 5 patients with elbow dislocations from bouldering were admitted to our level 1 trauma center. The injuries varied from simple elbow dislocations to complex fracture dislocations. Elbow dislocations occurred during falling backwards when patients tried to protect themselves by retroversion of both arms. In all cases the falling height was less than 4 meters. The bouldering injury pattern, the diagnostic and therapeutic management as well as the rehabilitation program are described in detail in this article. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the special danger of bouldering for complex elbow injuries. HubMed Рrehab