Associations of Family Meal Frequency With Family Meal Habits and Meal Preparation Characteristics Among Families of Youth With Type 1 Diabetes.

Associations of family meal frequency with family meal habits and meal preparation characteristics among families of youth with type 1 diabetes.

Child Care Health Dev. 2013 Jun 4;
Kornides ML, Nansel TR, Quick V, Haynie DL, Lipsky LM, Laffel LM, Mehta SN

BACKGROUND: While benefits of family mealtimes, such as improved dietary quality and increased family communication, have been well-documented in the general population, less is known about family meal habits that contribute to more frequent family meals in youth with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study surveyed 282 youth ages 8-18 years with type 1 diabetes and their parents on measures regarding diabetes-related and dietary behaviours. T-tests determined significant differences in youth’s diet quality, adherence to diabetes management and glycaemic control between those with and without regular family meals (defined as ?5 meals per week). Logistic regression analyses determined unadjusted and adjusted associations of age, socio-demographics, family meal habits, and family meal preparation characteristics with regular family meals. RESULTS: 57% of parents reported having regular family meals. Families with regular family meals had significantly better diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index (P < 0.05) and the NRF9.3 (P < 0.01), and adherence to diabetes management (P < 0.001); the difference in glycaemic control approached statistical significance (P = 0.06). Priority placed on, pleasant atmosphere and greater structure around family meals were each associated with regular family meals (P < 0.05). Meals prepared at home were positively associated with regular family meals, while convenience and fast foods were negatively associated (P < 0.05). Families in which at least one parent worked part-time or stayed at home were significantly more likely to have regular family meals than families in which both parents worked full-time (P < 0.05). In the multivariate logistic regression model, greater parental priority given to family mealtimes (P < 0.001) and more home-prepared meals (P < 0.001) predicted occurrence of regular family meals; adjusting for parent work status and other family meal habits. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies for promoting families meals should not only highlight the benefits of family meals, but also facilitate parents' skills for and barriers to home-prepared meals. HubMed – eating


Do Measures Commonly Used in Body Image Research Perform Adequately With African American College Women?

Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2013 Jun 3;
Kashubeck-West S, Coker AD, Awad GH, Stinson RD, Bledman R, Mintz L

This study examines reliability and validity estimates for 3 widely used measures in body image research in a sample of African American college women (N = 278). Internal consistency estimates were adequate (? coefficients above .70) for all measures, and evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was found. Confirmatory factor analyses failed to replicate the hypothesized factor structures of these measures. Exploratory factor analyses indicated that 4 factors found for the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire were similar to the hypothesized subscales, with fewer items. The factors found for the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory-3 were not similar to the subscales developed by the scale authors. Validity and reliability evidence is discussed for the new factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). HubMed – eating


Autonomy Support, Self-Regulation, and Weight Loss.

Health Psychol. 2013 Jun 3;
Gorin AA, Powers TA, Koestner R, Wing RR, Raynor HA

Objective: Social support is believed to contribute to weight loss success, yet the type of support received is rarely assessed. To develop more effective weight loss interventions, examinations of the types of support that are associated with positive outcomes are needed. Self-Determination Theory suggests that support for an individual’s autonomy is beneficial and facilitates internalization of autonomous self-regulation. We examined whether autonomy support and directive forms of support were associated with weight loss outcomes in a larger randomized controlled trial. Method: Adults (N = 201; 48.9 ± 10.5 years; 78.1% women) participating in a weight loss trial were assessed at 0, 6, and 18 months. Autonomy support (AS), directive support, and autonomous self-regulation (ASR) were measured at 0 and 6 months and examined in relation to 18-month weight loss outcomes. Results: Baseline AS and ASR did not predict outcomes; however, AS and ASR at 6 months positively predicted 18-month weight losses (ps < .05), encouragement of healthy eating at 6 months was negatively related to 18-month weight losses (p < .01), and other forms of directive support were not associated with outcomes. Conclusions: Autonomy support predicted better weight loss outcomes while some forms of directive support hindered progress. Weight loss trials are needed to determine whether family members and friends can be trained to provide autonomy support and whether this is more effective than programs targeting more general or directive forms of support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). HubMed – eating


Does Theory Influence the Effectiveness of Health Behavior Interventions? Meta-Analysis.

Health Psychol. 2013 Jun 3;
Prestwich A, Sniehotta FF, Whittington C, Dombrowski SU, Rogers L, Michie S

Objective: To systematically investigate the extent and type of theory use in physical activity and dietary interventions, as well as associations between extent and type of theory use with intervention effectiveness. Methods: An in-depth analysis of studies included in two systematic reviews of physical activity and healthy eating interventions (k = 190). Extent and type of theory use was assessed using the Theory Coding Scheme (TCS) and intervention effectiveness was calculated using Hedges’s g. Metaregressions assessed the relationships between these measures. Results: Fifty-six percent of interventions reported a theory base. Of these, 90% did not report links between all of their behavior change techniques (BCTs) with specific theoretical constructs and 91% did not report links between all the specified constructs with BCTs. The associations between a composite score or specific items on the TCS and intervention effectiveness were inconsistent. Interventions based on Social Cognitive Theory or the Transtheoretical Model were similarly effective and no more effective than interventions not reporting a theory base. Conclusions: The coding of theory in these studies suggested that theory was not often used extensively in the development of interventions. Moreover, the relationships between type of theory used and the extent of theory use with effectiveness were generally weak. The findings suggest that attempts to apply the two theories commonly used in this review more extensively are unlikely to increase intervention effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). HubMed – eating


Gender Affirmation: A Framework for Conceptualizing Risk Behavior among Transgender Women of Color.

Sex Roles. 2013 Jun 1; 68(11-12): 675-689
Sevelius JM

Experiences of stigma, discrimination, and violence as well as extreme health disparities and high rates of sexual risk behavior and substance use have been well-documented among transgender women of color. Using an intersectional approach and integrating prominent theories from stigma, eating disorders, and HIV-related research, this article offers a new framework for conceptualizing risk behavior among transgender women of color, specifically sexual risk behavior and risky body modification practices. This framework is centered on the concept of ‘gender affirmation,’ the process by which individuals are affirmed in their gender identity through social interactions. Qualitative data from 22 interviews with transgender women of color from the San Francisco Bay Area in the United States are analyzed and discussed in the context of the gender affirmation framework. HubMed – eating



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