Translational Genomic Research: Protocol Development and Initial Outcomes Following SNP Testing for Colon Cancer Risk.

Translational Genomic Research: Protocol Development and Initial Outcomes following SNP Testing for Colon Cancer Risk.

Transl Behav Med. 2013 Mar 1; 3(1): 17-29
Nusbaum R, Leventhal KG, Hooker GW, Peshkin BN, Butrick M, Salehizadeh Y, Tuong W, Eggly S, Mathew J, Goerlitz D, Shields PG, Schwartz MD, Graves KD

Although single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) testing for disease susceptibility is commercially available, translational studies are necessary to understand how to communicate genomic information and potential implications for public health. We explored attitudes about and initial responses to genomic testing for colon cancer risk. Following development of the educational materials, we offered testing for three colon cancer SNPs in a pilot study with primary care patients. Participants completed pre- and post-test sessions and interviews. We analyzed interview transcripts with qualitative software using thematic analysis. All 20 participants opted for SNP testing. Qualitative analysis identified several themes: Motivations for SNP Testing, Before/After: Meaning of Results, Emotional Responses to SNP Results and Genomic Literacy/ Information Delivery. Results demonstrate that individuals will pursue SNP testing in the context of pre and post-test education. SNP results may influence health behaviors like healthy eating and exercise yet did not appear to impact colon cancer screening intentions. HubMed – eating


Evaluation of a theory-driven e-learning intervention for future oral healthcare providers on secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors.

Health Educ Res. 2013 Apr 5;
Debate RD, Severson HH, Cragun DL, Gau JM, Merrell LK, Bleck JR, Christiansen S, Koerber A, Tomar SL, McCormack Brown KR, Tedesco LA, Hendricson W

Oral healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt oral and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this oral/systemic medical condition are limited in oral health educational programs. Web-based learning can supplement and reinforce traditional learning and has the potential to develop skills. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of a theory-driven Web-based training program to increase the capacity of oral health students to perform behaviors related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance evaluation framework, a longitudinal group-randomized controlled trial involving 27 oral health classes from 12 oral health education programs in the United States was implemented to assess the efficacy of the Web-based training on attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy and skills related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Mixed-model analysis of covariance indicated substantial improvements among students in the intervention group (effect sizes: 0.51-0.83) on all six outcomes of interest. Results suggest that the Web-based training program may increase the capacity of oral healthcare providers to deliver secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Implications and value of using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework are discussed. HubMed – eating


Predisposing, facilitating and reinforcing factors of healthy and unhealthy food consumption in schoolchildren: a study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Glob Health Promot. 2013 Mar; 20(1): 68-77
Daboné C, Delisle H, Receveur O

Objective: African schoolchildren’s dietary habits are likely changing in the realm of the nutrition transition, particularly in urban areas, but data on their diet and on determinants are scanty. In order to design relevant interventions for this priority target group, the study aimed to assess food habits and their determinants in schoolchildren of Ouagadougou. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, fifth-grade schoolchildren filled during school hours a questionnaire to assess consumption frequency of ‘healthy’ foods (fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, legumes) and ‘unhealthy’ (superfluous) items (cake, cookies, candies, ice, soda) and underlying factors, using Green’s PRECEDE model. Results: The study included 769 schoolchildren, mean age 11.7 ± 1.4 years, from eight public and four private schools. Consumption scores of unhealthy items were significantly higher than healthy foods (p = 0.001). During the week prior to the survey, 25% of children had eaten no fruit, 20% no meat, 20% no legumes, 17% no fish and 17% no vegetables. While less than 4% ate fruits or vegetables every day, 18.3% ate ice pop every day. Children eating cookies, cakes and candy every day were up to seven-fold those eating fruits, vegetables or legumes. Compared to public-school pupils, those from private schools consumed both healthy and unhealthy items more frequently (p = 0.002 and p = 0.007, respectively). Urban schoolchildren had significantly higher unhealthy food scores (p = 0.027) compared to peri-urban schools. Children’s healthy and unhealthy food consumption was primarily explained by perceived decisional power and availability [facilitating factors] for both types of foods, and maternal reinforcement for healthy foods and peers’ reinforcement for consumption of unhealthy items. Overall, facilitating factors rated higher for unhealthy than healthy foods. Conclusion: The study showed that city schoolchildren’s eating behaviours are far from optimal. Nutrition interventions should be tailored to address the underlying factors in order to impact on behaviours, thereby preventing both dietary inadequacies and excess. HubMed – eating


Decreased caudate response to milkshake is associated with higher body mass index and greater impulsivity.

Physiol Behav. 2013 Apr 3;
Babbs RK, Sun X, Felsted J, Chouinard-Decorte F, Veldhuizen MG, Small D

Previous investigations consistently report a negative association between body mass index (BMI) and response in the caudate nucleus during the consumption of palatable and energy dense food. Since this response has also been linked to weight gain, we sought to replicate this finding and determine if the reduced response is associated with measures of impulsivity or food reward. Two studies were conducted in which fMRI was used to measure brain response to milkshake and a tasteless control solution. In study 1 (n=25) we also assessed self-reported impulsivity, willingness to work for food, and subjective experiences of the pleasantness of milkshake taste and aroma. Replicating prior work, we report a negative association between BMI and brain response to milkshake vs. tasteless in the caudate nucleus. The opposite pattern was observed in the ventral putamen, with greater response observed in the 13 overweight compared to the 12 healthy weight subjects. Regression of brain response against impulsivity and food reward measures revealed one significant association: in the overweight but not healthy weight group self-reported impulsivity was negatively associated with caudate response to milkshake. In study 2 (n=14), in addition to assessing brain response to milkshake and tasteless solutions subjects completed a go/no-go task outside the scanner. As predicted, we identified an inverse relationship between caudate response to milkshake vs. tasteless and failure to inhibit responses on the no go trials. We conclude that the inverse correlation between BMI and caudate response to milkshake is associated with impulsivity but not food reward. These findings suggest that response to milkshake in the dorsal striatum may be related to weight gain by promoting impulsive eating behavior. HubMed – eating