Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Our Experience.

Postmenopausal osteoporosis: Our experience.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec; 16(Suppl 2): S421-2
Mehrotra RN, Ranjan A, Lath R, Ratnam R

There is very little published literature about experience with osteoporosis treatment from our country.It is a retrospective analysis of first 50 patients enrolled in our clinic for osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women with T score of less than -2.5 or history suggestive fragility fracture with supportive bone mineral density (BMD) were included. Patients having hypercalcemia, abnormal renal function, myeloma and on long-term steroids were also excluded.Nearly 34% subjects were below the age of 60 years, 47% of subjects were between 60 and 70 years, whereas 18% were above 70 years. Nearly 6% had family history of osteoporosis s or history of osteoporotic fractures. Nearly 20% subjects had fracture prior to starting of any treatment. A total of 86% (40/46) had evidence of Vitamin D (VD) deficiency. Nearly 80% of patients were treated with bisphosphonates, 12% were treated with injectable bisphosphonates, and 8% were treated with teriperatide. Nearly 16% patients had duration of more than 5 years of experience with bisphosphonates. Follow up BMD was available in 25 subjects. BMD had improved significantly in 68% of subjects. In 24% the BMD was stable (the change was less than least significant change (LSC)). In 8% BMD had shown a significant decline while being on treatment.Postmenopausal osteoporosis occurs in relatively younger women in our country. Majority of them are VD deficient. Oral bisphosphonates is the most common used drug; it is fairly well tolerated and effective. HubMed – drug


Newer anabolic therapies in osteopororsis.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec; 16(Suppl 2): S279-81
Mittal M, Chattopadyay N

Osteoporosis is one of the top 10 global diseases of 21 st century. The altered bone turnover rate has been attributed to impaired activity of osteoblasts and over-activity of osteoclasts. Anti-resorptive and bone forming therapies are the two choices available for the treatment of osteoporosis. In the mini-review, we will discuss the experimental therapeutics of emerging osteoanabolic strategies. HubMed – drug


Thyroid disorders in pregnancy.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec; 16(Suppl 2): S167-70
Ramprasad M, Bhattacharyya SS, Bhattacharyya A

Thyroid disorders are common in pregnancy and the most common disorder is subclinical hypothyroidism. Due to the complex hormonal changes during pregnancy, it is important to remember that thyroxine requirements are higher in pregnancy. According to recent American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines, the recommended reference ranges for TSH are 0.1 to 2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester, 0.2 to 3.0 mIU/L in the second trimester, and 0.3 to 3.0 mIU/L in the third trimester. Maternal hypothyroidism is an easily treatable condition that has been associated with increased risk of low birth weight, fetal distress, and impaired neuropsychological development. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is less common as conception is a problem. Majority of them are due to Graves’ disease, though gestational hyperthyroidism is to be excluded. Preferred drug is propylthiouracil (PTU) with the target to maintain free T4 in upper normal range. Doses can be reduced in third trimester due to the immune-suppressant effects of pregnancy. Early and effective treatment of thyroid disorder ensures a safe pregnancy with minimal maternal and neonatal complications. HubMed – drug


Graves’ orbitopathy: Management of difficult cases.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec; 16(Suppl 2): S150-2
Wiersinga WM

Management of Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is based on three pillars: to stop smoking, to restore and maintain euthyroidism, and to treat the eye changes according to severity and activity of GO. Difficulties are frequently encountered in each of these three management issues. The advice to discontinue smoking is straightforward, but just a small minority of smokers is able to quit smoking. Detailed information on how smoking adversely affects the outcome of Graves’ disease may convince patients they have to stop smoking right away. Controversy exists on the most appropriate treatment of Graves’ hyperthyroidism in the presence of GO. 131I therapy is associated with a risk of about 15% for worsening of GO; a preventive course of steroids is indicated in the presence of risk factors (smoking, biochemically severe hyperthyroidism, high level of TSH receptor antibodies, active GO). Alternatives are thyroidectomy or long-term treatment with antithyroid drugs, which apparently are rather neutral with respect to the course of GO. Mild GO is not always perceived as being mild by the patients themselves. Selenium improves mild GO. Moderate-to-severe GO is preferably treated with intravenous methylprednisolone pulses, but serious side effects and relapsing GO do occur. After steroid failure combination therapy with low-dose oral prednisone with either cyclosporine or retrobulbar irradiation can be effective. Dysthyroid optic neuropathy is best treated with IV pulses, followed by orbital decompression if visual functions do not improve. In resistant cases, rituximab might be considered, although failures of this drug are also described. HubMed – drug