The Role of Attention to Emotion in Recovery From Major Depressive Disorder.

The Role of Attention to Emotion in Recovery from Major Depressive Disorder.

Depress Res Treat. 2013; 2013: 540726
Thompson RJ, Mata J, Jaeggi SM, Buschkuehl M, Jonides J, Gotlib IH

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by several emotional disturbances. One possible but not well-examined disturbance is in attention to emotion, an important facet of emotional awareness. We examined whether attention to emotion predicted recovery from MDD. Fifty-three adults with current MDD completed a week of experience sampling (Time 1). At each prompt, participants reported attention to emotion, negative affect (NA), and positive affect (PA). Approximately one year later (Time 2), the depressive status of 27 participants was reassessed. Participants who had recovered from MDD (n = 8) indicated paying less attention to their emotions at Time 1 than did participants who had not fully recovered (n = 19). Attention to emotion was better predictor of recovery than was severity of MDD, NA, or PA at Time 1. Levels of attention to emotion at Time 1 in participants who recovered from MDD did not differ significantly from the levels reported by 53 never-depressed individuals who had participated in the experience sampling. Findings indicate that high levels of an otherwise adaptive emotional facet can adversely affect the course of MDD. HubMed – depression

Prevalence and Impact of Anxiety and Depression on Type 2 Diabetes in Tunisian Patients over Sixty Years Old.

Depress Res Treat. 2013; 2013: 341782
Masmoudi J, Damak R, Zouari H, Ouali U, Mechri A, Zouari N, Jaoua A

Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in a population aged over sixty years with type 2 diabetes and to study the impact of anxiety and depression on glycemic balance and disease outcome. Results. The prevalence of anxiety and depression in the 62 subjects included in the study was, respectively, 40.3% and 22.6%. We found a relationship between these disorders and complicated diabetes. The subjects having an imperfectly balanced diabetes had a higher average anxiety score than those having a good glycemic control (9.1 ± 4.2 versus 6.5 ± 3.1; P = 0.017). No relationship was found between diabetes balance and depression. Conclusion. Association between anxiety and depressive disorders and diabetes is frequent and worsens patients’ outcome, in terms of diabetes imbalance as well as in terms of diabetic complications. Our study shows that there is need for physicians to detect, confirm, and treat anxiety and depressive disorders in elderly diabetic patients. HubMed – depression

Novel Antidepressant-Like Activity of Propolis Extract Mediated by Enhanced Glucocorticoid Receptor Function in the Hippocampus.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 217853
Lee MS, Kim YH, Park WS, Ahn WG, Park OK, Kwon SH, Morita K, Shim I, Her S

Propolis is a natural product made by honeybees that has been widely used in folk medicine with a broad spectrum of biological activities. To investigate the antidepressant-like activity of propolis extract, CD-1 mice were administered an ethanol extract of propolis (50, 100, or 200?mg/kg, p.o.) prior to the behavioral test. The propolis extract-treated group showed a dose-dependent decrease in immobility time in the FST and tail suspension test without altering locomotor activity. Propolis extract decreased the limbic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to the FST as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased in c-fos immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Western blot analysis revealed a reduction in hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression following the FST, which was reversed by propolis extract. Propolis extract also increased pGR(S220)/(S234) ratio by a differential phosphorylation in S220 and S234. FST-induced downregulation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein phosphorylation at S133 (pCREB) was restored by propolis extract, showing a strong and positive relationship between pCREB and pGR(S220)/(S234) ratio. These findings suggest that the propolis extract potentiates antidepressant-like activity by enhancing GR function which is one of the therapeutic mechanisms of antidepressant; thus, propolis extract may provide a novel therapy for depression. HubMed – depression

Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels Are Associated with Dyssomnia in Females, but not Males, among Japanese Workers.

J Clin Sleep Med. 2013; 9(7): 649-654
Nishichi R, Nufuji Y, Washio M, Kumagai S

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors that promote the growth and survival of neurons. Recent evidence suggests that BDNF is a sleep regulatory substance that contributes to sleep behavior. However, no studies have examined the association between the serum BDNF levels and dyssomnia. The present study was conducted to clarify the association between the serum BDNF levels and dyssomnia.A total of 344 workers (age: 40.1 ± 10.5 years, male: 204, female: 140) were included in the study. The serum BDNF levels were categorized into tertiles according to sex.The prevalence of dyssomnia was 35.1% in males and 30.0% in females. In the females, the BDNF levels were found to be negatively associated with dyssomnia after adjusting for age, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, depression, smoking, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. Compared with the females in the high BDNF group, the multivariate odds ratio (95% CI) of dyssomnia was 2.08 (0.62-6.98) in females in the moderate BDNF group and 8.41 (2.05-27.14) in females in the low BDNF group. No such relationships were found in the males.The serum BDNF levels are associated with dyssomnia in Japanese female, but not male, workers.Nishichi R; Nufuji Y; Washio M; Shuzo Kumagai S. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels are associated with dyssomnia in females, but not males, among Japanese workers. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(7):649-654. HubMed – depression

The Effectiveness of Light/Dark Exposure to Treat Insomnia in Female Nurses Undertaking Shift Work during the Evening/Night Shift.

J Clin Sleep Med. 2013; 9(7): 641-646
Huang LB, Tsai MC, Chen CY, Hsu SC

The present study investigated whether bright light exposure during the first half of the evening/night shift combined with light attenuation in the morning is effective in improving sleep problems in nurses undertaking rotating shift work who suffer from clinical insomnia.This was a prospective, randomized control study. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) were used to evaluate insomnia and anxiety/depression severity, respectively. Female hospital nurses on rotating shifts during the evening or night shift with an ISI score > 14 were enrolled. Subjects in the treatment group (n = 46) were exposed to bright light at 7,000-10,000 lux for ? 30 minutes. Exposure was continued for at least 10 days during 2 weeks, and the subjects avoided daytime outdoor sun exposure after work by wearing dark sunglasses. Subjects in the control group (n = 46) were not exposed to bright light, but also wore sunglasses after work. Statistical analyses were performed to examine group differences and differences across treatments.After treatment, the treatment group showed significant improvements in the ISI score and the HADS total and subscale scores as compared with pre-treatment. The ISI, HADS, and subscales of the HADS scores were significantly improved across treatments in the treatment group as compared with the control group.The design of this study is easy to put into practice in the real world. This is the first study to document that a higher intensity and briefer duration of bright light exposure during the first half of the evening/night shift with a daytime darkness procedure performed in rotating shift work female nurses suffering from clinical insomnia could improve their insomnia, anxiety, and depression severity.A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 647.Huang LB; Tsai MC; Chen CY; Hsu SC. The effectiveness of light/dark exposure to treat insomnia in female nurses undertaking shift work during the evening/night shift. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(7):641-646. HubMed – depression