Role of Benzodiazepines in the Management of Agitation Due to Inappropriate Use of Naltrexone.

Role of Benzodiazepines in the management of agitation due to inappropriate use of naltrexone.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2012 7; 17(5): 365-369
Sabzghabaee AM, Eizadi-Mood N, Gheshlaghi F, Javani A, Shirani S, Aghaabdollahian S

Agitation is an early symptom of the acute opioid withdrawal syndrome in addicts that may start by inappropriate use of naltrexone. The current drug interventions are not efficient or need critical care as well. This study compares the clinical role of midazolam and diazepam for the management of agitation due to inappropriate use of naltrexone.In this double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 44 agitated addicts, who did not use any type of benzodiazepine, not on systematic central nervous system depressant drugs, without any known hypersensitivity to diazepam, midazolam, or any other component of their formulation and had no evidence for the need of critical care, were enrolled. An i.v. stat dose of 0.1 mg/kg diazepam and 0.1 mg/kg stat dose of midazolam and a 0.1 mg/kg/h infusion of these drugs were administered for different groups of patients, respectively. Agitation scores were recorded at 30, 60, 120 min after the start of drug administration using Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale score.A significant difference between the mean onset of agitation control in midazolam group (at 67 min) and diazepam group (at 81 min) was recorded. The difference of mean agitation score in the midazolam and diazepam group was only significant at 120 min. There was a negative correlation between agitation score and time elapsed from naltrexone administration to admission.Midazolam and diazepam may not be considered suitable and perfect pharmacologic agents for the initial controlling of agitation induced by naltrexone. HubMed – drug

Effect of mebudipine on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury in male rat.

J Res Med Sci. 2012 Dec; 17(12): 1150-1155
Ghyasi R, Sepehri G, Mohammadi M, Badalzadeh R, Ghyasi A

Myocardial infarction (MI) is the acute condition of necrosis in myocardium which occurs as a result of imbalance between coronary blood supply and myocardial demand. The resultant oxidative stress excess leads to worsen the condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mebudipine, a new dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided to Control-ischemic, mebudipine-ischemic and vehicle (ethanol-ischemic) groups. The hearts of anaesthetized rats were removed and mounted on Langendorff apparatus and perfused by Krebs-Henseleit solution under constant pressure of 75 mmHg at 37°C. Ischemic groups were received 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion and the mebudipine and vehicle groups received mebudipine (0.1 nM) or ethanol (0.01%)-enriched solution 25 min before global ischemia. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase levels of heart tissue samples were determined by commercial specific Kits.Mebudipine significantly reduced the MDA level (2.3 ± 0.07 nmol/mg protein) as the biochemical indicator of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation product as compared with those of vehicle (4.6 ± 0.01 nmol/mg protein) and control groups (4.8 ± 0.09 nmol/mg protein). Furthermore, antioxidant enzymes SOD (0.1 ± 0.006 in drug vs. 0.037 ± 0.009 U/mg Protein in control), GPX (16 ± 0.009 in drug vs. 0.068 ± 0.01 U/mg Protein in control) and catalase activities (0.075 ± 0.006 in drug vs. 0.028 ± 0.002 U/mg Protein in control), activities of myocardium were significantly increased by mebudipine (P < 0.01).Our results showed that mebudipine may have antioxidant activity against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury since it decreased oxidative stress by enhancing the enzymatic antioxidant defense and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation. Thus, this drug can reduce the intensity of cardiac ischemic insults. HubMed – drug

Determination of Tetracycline in Pharmaceutical Preparation by Molecular and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography via Complex Formation with Au(III) and Hg(II) Ions in Solutions.

Int J Anal Chem. 2013; 2013: 305124
Abdulghani AJ, Jasim HH, Hassan AS

UV-visible and atomic spectrophotometry and HPLC techniques were applied for the determination of tetracycline (TC) in pharmaceutical preparations via complexation of the drug with Au(III) and Hg(II) ions in solutions. The mole ratio of TC to metal ions was 1?:?1. Maximum peak absorption at ? 425 and 320?nm for the two ions, respectively, was optimized at heating temperature 75°C for 15 minutes at pH = 4 followed by the extraction with ethyl acetate. The percentage of extraction and stability constants for the two complexes was 95.247, 95.335% and 2.518 × 10(4), 1.162 × 10(5)?M(-1), respectively. HPLC method was applied without extraction process. The analytical data obtained from direct calibration curves of UV-visible absorption, FAAS, and HPLC for Au(III) complexes were recovery (100.78, 104.85, and 101.777%, resp.); detection limits (0.7403, 0.0997, and 2.647? ? g/ml, resp.); linearity (5-70, 5-30, and 10-150? ? g/ml, resp.), and correlation coefficient (0.9991, 0.9967, and 0.9986, resp.). The analytical data obtained from direct calibration curves for Hg(II) complexes by UV-visible spectrophotometry and HPLC were recovery (100.95 and 102.000%, resp.); detection limits (0.5867 and 2.532? ? g/ml, resp.); linearity (5-70 and 10-150? ? g/ml, resp.); and correlation coefficients (0.9989 and 0.9997, resp.). HubMed – drug