The Relationship Between Cognitive Function, Depressive Behaviour and Sleep Quality With 24-H Urinary Sodium Excretion in Patients With Essential Hypertension.

The Relationship Between Cognitive Function, Depressive Behaviour and Sleep Quality with 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion in Patients with Essential Hypertension.

High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev. 2013 Mar 26;
Afsar B

BACKGROUND: Various studies have shown that sodium intake is related to increased blood pressure. However, the relationship between sodium intake and cognitive function and depression has not previously been studied. AIM: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between 24-h sodium excretion with cognitive function, depression and sleep quality in patients newly diagnosed with essential hypertension. METHODS: All patients underwent history taking, physical examination, blood pressure measurement, 12-lead ECG evaluation, routine urine analysis, biochemical analysis and 24-h urine collection to measure urinary sodium and protein excretion and creatinine clearance, evaluation of cognitive function, depressive behaviour and sleep quality. RESULTS: In total, 119 patients newly diagnosed with essential hypertension (50 men and 69 women aged 54.2 ± 16.1 years) were enrolled. The 24-h urinary sodium excretion of the patients was 204.0 ± 240.4 mEq/day. The Standardized Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Beck Depression Inventory scores of the patients were 26.0 ± 2.7, 5.6 ± 3.1 and 21.6 ± 13.5, respectively. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that 24-h urinary sodium excretion was correlated with age (rho -0.258, p = 0.005), systolic blood pressure (rho 0.219, p = 0.017), diastolic blood pressure (rho 0.195, p = 0.034), creatinine clearance (rho 0.414, p < 0.0001) and SMMSE score (rho -0.257, p = 0.005). Stepwise linear regression of independent factors revealed that gender (p < 0.0001), creatinine clearance (p < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.031) and SMMSE score (p < 0.0001) were independently related to logarithmically converted 24-h sodium excretion. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated that better cognitive function, but not depressive behaviour and sleep disturbance, is related to decreased sodium intake as evaluated by 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Studies are needed to highlight the mechanisms regarding the relationship between cognitive function and sodium intake. HubMed – depression


Predictors of subjective cognitive complaint in post-acute older adult stroke patients.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Mar 22;
Lamb F, Anderson J, Saling M, Dewey H

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of objective cognitive impairment, negative affect and fatigue on cognitive complaints in a sample of post-acute (Mean = 6.64 months, SD = 1.32) ischaemic stroke patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Specialised stroke units at major metropolitan hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five first-ever post-acute ischaemic stroke patients aged between 50-85 yearsold, with relatively good neurological recovery (NIHSS ? 7). Participants were excluded from the study if there was a documented history of psychiatric illness, neurological disease, dementia, or a moderate or severe aphasia. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive complaint as measured by the A-B Neuropsychological Assessment Schedule. RESULTS: Ninety percent of patients reported some level of cognitive difficulty in everyday life. Fatigue, cognitive slowing, memory difficulties, and poor concentration were the most frequently reported complaints. Over half of all participants had significant impairment in at least one cognitive domain following their stroke. A standard multiple regression was performed to evaluate the relative impacts of negative affect, fatigue, and objective cognitive functioning on subjective cognitive complaints. This model accounted for 61% of the variance of total subjective cognitive complaints (R = 0.78, F(3,21) = 10.96, p < 0.001), with depression being the only variable to make a significant independent contribution to the prediction of subjective cognitive complaints. CONCLUSION: Cognitive complaints are reported by almost all patients following a stroke. Although 50% of participants had objective evidence of a cognitive impairment, neither objective cognitive impairment nor fatigue predicted cognitive complaint independently of negative affect. Clinicians who receive reports of cognitive complaint in the post-acute period after stroke should be alert to the possibility of psychological distress in their patient. HubMed – depression


Negative life events and corticotropin-releasing-hormone receptor1 gene in recurrent major depressive disorder.

Sci Rep. 2013 Mar 26; 3: 1548
Liu Z, Liu W, Yao L, Yang C, Xiao L, Wan Q, Gao K, Wang H, Zhu F, Wang G, Xiao Z

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a long-term, recurrent condition that often takes a chronic course. It seems imperative that research should be focused on gaining a better understanding of what predicts recurrent MDD. As a major mediator of the stress response, corticotropin-releasing-hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) has been demonstrated to be an important contributor to the pathogenesis of MDD. In this study, we show a significant increase in the G-allele (rs242939) of the CRHR1 gene in the recurrent MDD group compared with the control group, and an overrepresentation of G-G-T hyplotype of the CRHR1 gene in recurrent MDD. We also demonstrate the interaction of the CRHR1 gene and negative life events in recurrent MDD. These results suggest that the CRHR1 gene could modify the susceptibility to developing recurrent MDD following negative life events in adulthood. HubMed – depression