Characterisation of Hypertensive Patients With Improved Endothelial Function After Dark Chocolate Consumption.

Characterisation of hypertensive patients with improved endothelial function after dark chocolate consumption.

Int J Hypertens. 2013; 2013: 985087
d’El-Rei J, Cunha AR, Burlá A, Burlá M, Oigman W, Neves MF, Virdis A, Medeiros F

Recent findings indicate an inverse relationship between cardiovascular disease and consumption of flavonoids. We aimed to identify clinical and vascular parameters of treated hypertensive who present beneficial effects of dark chocolate for one-week period on vascular function. Twenty-one hypertensive subjects, aged 40-65?years, were included in a prospective study with measurement of blood pressure (BP), brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), peripheral arterial tonometry, and central hemodynamic parameters. These tests were repeated after seven days of eating dark chocolate 75?g/day. Patients were divided according to the response in FMD: responders (n = 12) and nonresponders (n = 9). The responder group presented lower age (54?±?7 versus 61?±?6?years, P = 0.037), Framingham risk score (FRS) (2.5?±?1.8 versus 8.1?±?5.1%, P = 0.017), values of peripheral (55?±?9 versus 63?±?5?mmHg, P = 0.041), and central pulse pressure (PP) (44?±?10 versus 54?±?6?mmHg, P = 0.021). FMD response showed negative correlation with FRS (r = -0.60, P = 0.014), baseline FMD (r = -0.54, P = 0.011), baseline reactive hyperemia index (RHI; r = -0.56, P = 0.008), and central PP (r = -0.43, P = 0.05). However, after linear regression analysis, only FRS and baseline RHI were associated with FMD response. In conclusion, one-week dark chocolate intake significantly improved endothelial function and reduced BP in younger hypertensive with impaired endothelial function in spite of lower cardiovascular risk. HubMed – eating


The Human Experience with Ghrelin Administration.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Mar 26;
Garin MC, Burns CM, Kaul S, Cappola AR

Context:Ghrelin is an endogenous stimulator of growth hormone and is implicated in a number of physiologic processes. Clinical trials have been performed in a variety of patient populations, but there is no comprehensive review of the beneficial and adverse consequences of ghrelin administration to humans.Evidence Acquisition:PubMed was utilized and the reference list of each article was screened. We included 121 published articles in which ghrelin was administered to humans.Evidence Synthesis:Ghrelin has been administered as an infusion or a bolus in a variety of doses to 1850 study participants, including healthy participants and patients with obesity, prior gastrectomy, cancer, pituitary disease, diabetes mellitus, eating disorders, and other conditions. There is strong evidence that ghrelin stimulates appetite and increases circulating GH, ACTH, cortisol, prolactin, and glucose across varied patient populations. There is a paucity of evidence regarding the effects of ghrelin on LH, FSH, TSH, insulin, lipolysis, body composition, cardiac function, pulmonary function, the vasculature and sleep. Adverse effects occurred in 20% of participants, with a predominance of flushing and gastric rumbles and a mild degree of severity. The few serious adverse events occurred in patients with advanced illness and were not clearly attributable to ghrelin. Route of administration may affect the pattern of adverse effects.Conclusions:Existing literature support the short-term safety of ghrelin administration and its efficacy as an appetite stimulant in diverse patient populations. There is some evidence to suggest that ghrelin has wider ranging therapeutic effects, though these areas require further investigation. HubMed – eating


Bariatric surgery following treatment for craniopharyngioma: a systematic review and individual-level data meta-analysis.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Mar 26;
Bretault M, Boillot A, Muzard L, Poitou C, Oppert JM, Barsamian C, Gatta B, Müller H, Weismann D, Rottembourg D, Inge T, Veyrie N, Carette C, Czernichow S

Objectives:Craniopharyngiomas are rare low-grade tumors located in the hypothalamic or/and the pituitary region. Hypothalamic involvement and treatment resulting in hypothalamic damage are known to lead to development of “hypothalamic” obesity (HyOb) in 50% of cases. The management of HyOb, associated with eating disorders and rapid comorbidities, is an important issue. Bariatric surgery is the most effective therapy for weight loss in patients with severe exogenous obesity. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the 12 month outcome of bariatric surgery for HyOb due to craniopharyngioma treatment.Methods and Results:Relevant studies were identified by searches of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases until January 2013. A total of 21 cases were included: 6 with adjustable gastric banding, 8 with sleeve gastrectomy, 6 with Roux en Y gastric bypass, and 1 with biliopancreatic diversion. After data pooling, mean weight difference was -20.9 kg after 6 months [95% CI: – 35.4, -6.3] and -15.1 kg after 12 months [95% CI: -31.7, +1.4]. The maximal mean weight loss was achieved by the gastric bypass group: -31.0 kg [95% CI: -77.5, +15.5] and -33.7 kg [95% CI: -80.7, +13.3] after 6 and 12 months, respectively.Conclusions:In this largest ever published study on the effect of bariatric surgery on obesity following craniopharyngioma treatment, we observed an important weight loss after one year of follow-up. Larger studies are warranted to establish appropriate selection criteria and the best surgical technique to perform bariatric surgery. HubMed – eating


Food habits and preferences as a factor in the choice of meals by students in the University of Cape Coast.

Nutr Health. 2012 Jul; 21(3): 151-72
Offei-Ansah C

The purpose of this study was to investigate food habits and preferences against menu planning for heterogeneous groups in institutions and to determine to what extent these results on food habits and preferences can be applied to practical recommendations in menu planning for heterogeneous groups. This study used data from a sample of students to determine whether food habits and preferences influence students’ own menu planning and that of other eating outlets. A sample of 60 students within the University of Cape Coast campus was considered for this study. Findings from the study revealed that a greater number of students have altered their food habits over the years. This was attributed greatly to health factors, change of environment and education. The recommendations made in this study include encouraging cooking competitions among young people to expose them to traditional meals/dishes, which show culinary prowess, and also holding food fairs and encouraging teaching cooking methods for traditional dishes to children. HubMed – eating


Examining the Associations Between Overeating, Disinhibition, and Hunger in a Nonclinical Sample of College Women.

Int J Behav Med. 2013 Mar 28;
Mailloux G, Bergeron S, Meilleur D, D’Antono B, Dubé I

BACKGROUND: Binge eating (BE) has long been identified as a correlate of overweight and obesity. However, less empirical attention has been given to overeating with and without loss of control (LOC) in nonclinical samples. PURPOSE: The goal of the present study was to examine the association of (1) established correlates of BE, namely, weight and shape concerns, dietary restraint, and negative affect, and (2) three additional correlates, disinhibition, hunger, and interoceptive awareness (IA), to overeating in a nonclinical sample of college women. METHOD: Female students (n?=?1,447) aged 18 to 21 years recruited from colleges in three Canadian metropolitan areas completed self-report questionnaires in class to assess sociodemographic and anthropomorphic characteristics, overeating, LOC, dietary restraint, negative affect, weight and shape concerns, IA, disinhibition, and hunger. RESULTS: The established correlates of BE were significant correlates of all types of overeating and explained 33 % of the variance. Disinhibition was the most strongly associated correlate of overeating. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that established correlates of BE are associated with other types of overeating such as objective overeating (OOE), as are disinhibition and hunger. HubMed – eating