The Prevalence of Failure-Based Depression Among Elite Athletes.

The Prevalence of Failure-Based Depression Among Elite Athletes.

Clin J Sport Med. 2013 Mar 22;
Hammond T, Gialloreto C, Kubas H, Davis HH

OBJECTIVE:: To assess the prevalence of diagnosed failure-based depression and self-reported symptoms of depression within a sample of elite swimmers competing for positions on Canadian Olympic and World Championship teams. DESIGN:: A cross-sectional design. SETTING:: Assessments were conducted after the conclusion of the qualifying swimming trials. PARTICIPANTS:: The sample consisted of 50 varsity swimmers (28 men and 22 women) based at 2 Canadian universities who were competing to represent Canada internationally. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Diagnosed depression was assessed using a semistructured interview, and symptoms of depression were also assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II. Performance was measured by changes in swimming time and athlete ranking. RESULTS:: Before competition, 68% of athletes met criteria for a major depressive episode. More female athletes experienced depression than their male peers (P = 0.01). After the competition, 34% of athletes met diagnostic criteria and 26% self-reported mild to moderate symptoms of depression. The prevalence of depression doubled among the elite top 25% of athletes assessed. Within this group, performance failure was significantly associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS:: The findings suggest that the prevalence of depression among elite athletes is higher than what has been previously reported in the literature. Being ranked among the very elite athletes is related to an increase in susceptibility to depression, particularly in relation to a failed performance. Given these findings, it is important to consider the mental health of athletes and have appropriate support services in place. HubMed – depression


Depression in employees in privately owned enterprises in china: is it related to work environment and work ability?

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013; 10(4): 1152-67
Sun J, Buys N, Wang X

This study examines the individual and workplace factors related to depression and stress in a large privately owned enterprise in China. The cross-sectional study design involved 13 privately owned retail enterprises in China. A self-report survey was administered to 4,847 employees aged 18-54 recruited through the management boards of the 13 enterprises. A chi-square test was used to compare differences between the depressed and non-depressed groups on a number of demographic variables and chronic diseases. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess depression in relation to individual factors (work ability and resilience) and organisational environmental factors (workplace ethos and culture, psychosocial environment and health promotion policies and activities). Significant relationships were found between employee depression all personal factors, and one organisational environmental factor. Personal factors include poor work ability and low resilience, while workplace factors include workplace ethos and culture. The primary organisational environmental factor was a low level of enterprise ethos and culture. HubMed – depression


Differences between first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

Schizophr Res. 2013 Mar 22;
Cotton SM, Lambert M, Schimmelmann BG, Mackinnon A, Gleeson JF, Berk M, Hides L, Chanen AM, Scott J, Schöttle D, McGorry PD, Conus P

BACKGROUND: The diagnostic and clinical overlap between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder is an important nosological issue in psychiatry that is yet to be resolved. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and functional characteristics of an epidemiological treated cohort of first episode patients with an 18-month discharge diagnosis of schizophrenia (FES) or schizoaffective disorder (FESA). METHODS: This study was part of the larger First Episode Psychosis Outcome Study (FEPOS) which involved a medical file audit study of all 786 patients treated at the Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre between 1998 and 2000. Of this cohort, 283 patients had an 18-month discharge diagnosis of FES and 64 had a diagnosis of FESA. DSM-IV diagnoses and clinical and functional ratings were derived and validated by two consultant psychiatrists. RESULTS: Compared to FES patients, those with FESA were significantly more likely to have a later age of onset (p=.004), longer prodrome (p=.020), and a longer duration of untreated psychosis (p<.001). At service entry, FESA patients presented with a higher illness severity (p=.020), largely due to the presence of more severe manic symptoms (p<.001). FESA patients also had a greater number of subsequent inpatient admissions (p=.017), had more severe depressive symptoms (p=.011), and higher levels of functioning at discharge. DISCUSSION: The findings support the notion that these might be considered two discernable disorders; however, further research is required to ascertain the ways and extent to which these disorders are discriminable at presentation and over time. HubMed – depression



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