Response to Letter Regarding Article, “Short- and Long-Term Outcomes With Drug-Eluting and Bare-Metal Coronary Stents: A Mixed-Treatment Comparison Analysis of 117,762 Patient-Years of Follow-Up From Randomized Trials”.

Response to letter regarding article, “Short- and long-term outcomes with drug-eluting and bare-metal coronary stents: a mixed-treatment comparison Analysis of 117,762 patient-years of follow-up from randomized trials”.

Circulation. 2013 Feb 12; 127(6): e447
Bangalore S, Fusaro M, Amoroso N, Attubato MJ, Feit F, Slater J, Kumar S, Bhatt DL

HubMed – drug


Treatment course with antidepressant therapy in late-life depression.

Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Nov 1; 169(11): 1185-93
Sheline YI, Disabato BM, Hranilovich J, Morris C, D’Angelo G, Pieper C, Toffanin T, Taylor WD, MacFall JR, Wilkins C, Barch DM, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Steffens DC, Krishnan RR, Doraiswamy PM

In order to assess the effect of gray matter volumes and cortical thickness on antidepressant treatment response in late-life depression, the authors examined the relationship between brain regions identified a priori and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores over the course of an antidepressant treatment trial.In a nonrandomized prospective trial, 168 patients who were at least 60 years of age and met DSM-IV criteria for major depression underwent MRI and were enrolled in a 12-week treatment study. Exclusion criteria included cognitive impairment or severe medical disorders. The volumes or cortical thicknesses of regions of interest that differed between the depressed group and a comparison group (N=50) were determined. These regions of interest were used in analyses of the depressed group to predict antidepressant treatment outcome. Mixed-model analyses adjusting for age, education, age at depression onset, race, baseline MADRS score, scanner, and interaction with time examined predictors of MADRS scores over time.Smaller hippocampal volumes predicted a slower response to treatment. With the inclusion of white matter hyper-intensity severity and neuropsychological factor scores, the best model included hippocampal volume and cognitive processing speed to predict rate of response over time. A secondary analysis showed that hippocampal volume and frontal pole thickness differed between patients who achieved remission and those who did not.These data expand our understanding of the prediction of treatment course in late-life depression. The authors propose that the primary variables of hippocampal volume and cognitive processing speed, subsuming other contributing variables (episodic memory, executive function, language processing) predict antidepressant response. HubMed – drug


Psychopathology in adolescent offspring of parents with panic disorder, major depression, or both: a 10-year follow-up.

Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Nov 1; 169(11): 1175-84
Hirshfeld-Becker DR, Micco JA, Henin A, Petty C, Faraone SV, Mazursky H, Bruett L, Rosenbaum JF, Biederman J

The authors examined the specificity and course of psychiatric disorders from early childhood through adolescence in offspring of parents with confirmed panic disorder and major depressive disorder.The authors examined rates of psychiatric disorders at 10-year-follow-up (mean age, 14 years) in four groups: offspring of referred parents with panic and depression (N=137), offspring of referred parents with panic without depression (N=26), offspring of referred parents with depression without panic (N=48), and offspring of nonreferred parents with neither disorder (N=80). Follow-up assessments relied on structured interviews with the adolescents and their mothers; diagnoses were rated present if endorsed by either.Parental panic disorder, independently of parental depression, predicted lifetime rates in offspring of multiple anxiety disorders, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Parental depression independently predicted offspring bipolar, drug use, and disruptive behavior disorders. Parental panic and depression interacted to predict specific phobia and major depressive disorder. Phobias were elevated in all at-risk groups, and depression was elevated in both offspring groups of parents with depression (with or without panic disorder), with the highest rates in the offspring of parents with depression only. Parental depression independently predicted new onset of depression, parental panic disorder independently predicted new onset of social phobia, and the two interacted to predict new onset of specific phobia and generalized anxiety disorder.At-risk offspring continue to develop new disorders as they progress through adolescence. These results support the need to screen and monitor the offspring of adults presenting for treatment of panic disorder or major depressive disorder. HubMed – drug


Synaptic mechanisms underlying rapid antidepressant action of ketamine.

Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Nov 1; 169(11): 1150-6
Kavalali ET, Monteggia LM

Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that a single subpsychotomimetic dose of ketamine, an ionotropic glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, produces a rapid antidepressant response in patients with major depressive disorder, with effects lasting up to 2 weeks. Despite enthusiasm about this unexpected efficacy of ketamine, its widespread use as a fast-acting antidepressant in routine clinical settings is curtailed by its abuse potential as well as possible psychotomimetic effects. However, the ability of ketamine to produce a rapid and long-lasting antidepressant response in patients with depression provides a unique opportunity for investigation of mechanisms that mediate these clinically relevant behavioral effects. From a mechanistic perspective, it is easy to imagine how activation of NMDA receptors may trigger cellular and behavioral responses; it is relatively more difficult, however, to envision how transient blockade of one of the key pathways for neuronal communication produces a persistent beneficial effect. The authors discuss recent work linking ketamine’s mechanism of action to homeostatic synaptic plasticity processes activated after suppression of NMDA-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission. They focus on their recent work demonstrating that ketamine-mediated blockade of NMDA receptors at rest deactivates eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase, resulting in reduced eEF2 phosphorylation and desuppression of rapid dendritic protein translation, including BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), which then contributes to synaptic plasticity mechanisms that mediate longterm effects of the drug. The authors also explore possible molecular strategies to target spontaneous neurotransmitter release selectively to help uncover novel presynaptic avenues for the development of fast-acting antidepressants and possibly psychoactive compounds with effectiveness against other neuropsychiatric disorders. HubMed – drug