The Long Arm of Parental Addictions: The Association With Adult Children’s Depression in a Population-Based Study.

The long arm of parental addictions: The association with adult children’s depression in a population-based study.

Psychiatry Res. 2013 May 1;
Fuller-Thomson E, B Katz R, T Phan V, P M Liddycoat J, Brennenstuhl S

Parental addictions have been associated with adult children’s depression in several clinical and population-based studies. However, these studies have not examined if gender differences exist nor have they controlled for a range of potential explanatory factors. Using a regionally representative sample of 6268 adults from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (response rate=83%), we investigated the association between parental addictions and adulthood depression controlling for four clusters of variables: adverse childhood experiences, adult health behaviors, adult socioeconomic status and other stressors. After controlling for all factors, adults exposed to parental addiction had 69% higher odds of depression compared to their peers with non-addicted parents (OR=1.69; 95% CI, 1.25-2.28). The relationship between parental addictions and depression did not vary by gender. These findings underscore the intergenerational consequences of drug and alcohol addiction and reinforce the need to develop interventions that support healthy childhood development. HubMed – addiction


The Evolution of Drosophila melanogaster as a Model for Alcohol Addiction.

Annu Rev Neurosci. 2013 Apr 29;
Devineni AV, Heberlein U

Animal models have been widely used to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the acute and long-term effects of alcohol exposure. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster encounters ethanol in its natural habitat and possesses many adaptations that allow it to survive and thrive in ethanol-rich environments. Several assays to study ethanol-related behaviors in flies, ranging from acute intoxication to self-administration and reward, have been developed in the past 20 years. These assays have provided the basis for studying the physiological and behavioral effects of ethanol and for identifying genes mediating these effects. In this review we describe the ecological relationship between flies and ethanol, the effects of ethanol on fly development and behavior, the use of flies as a model for alcohol addiction, and the interaction between ethanol and social behavior. We discuss these advances in the context of their utility to help decipher the mechanisms underlying the diverse effects of ethanol, including those that mediate ethanol dependence and addiction in humans. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience Volume 36 is July 08, 2013. Please see for revised estimates. HubMed – addiction


The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers.

BMC Public Health. 2013 May 3; 13(1): 432
Uppal N, Shahab L, Britton J, Ratschen E

BACKGROUND: Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. METHODS: Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. RESULTS: All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they ‘ought’ to quit as opposed to ‘wanted’ to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be considerable in order to influence motivation. Highly motivated smokers expressed more willingness to visit Stop Smoking Services, although none had done so. CONCLUSION: Continuing smokers’ attitudes towards smoking and quitting suggests that research and policy need to focus on increasing smokers’ implicit motivation to quit smoking, even for those who classified themselves as having high motivation to quit. Targeted information and further education about Stop Smoking Services is required to increase uptake. HubMed – addiction