Occurrence and Characterization of Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza Virus in Children Between 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 Seasons.

Occurrence and characterization of oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus in children between 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons.

Korean J Pediatr. 2013 Apr; 56(4): 165-75
Kim SG, Hwang YH, Shin YH, Kim SW, Jung WS, Kim SM, Oh JM, Lee NY, Kim MJ, Cho KS, Park YG, Min SK, Lee CK, Kim JS, Kang C, Lee JY, Huh MK, Kim CH

There was a global increase in the prevalence of oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses during the 2007-2008 influenza season. This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and characteristics of oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 influenza seasons among patients who were treated with oseltamivir (group A) and those that did not receive oseltamivir (group B).A prospective study was conducted on 321 pediatric patients who were hospitalized because of influenza during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 influenza seasons. Drug resistance tests were conducted on influenza viruses isolated from 91 patients.There was no significant difference between the clinical characteristics of groups A and B during both seasons. Influenza A/H1N1, isolated from both groups A and B during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 periods, was not resistant to zanamivir. However, phenotypic analysis of the virus revealed a high oseltamivir IC50 range and that H275Y substitution of the neuraminidase (NA) gene and partial variation of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene did not affect its antigenicity to the HA vaccine even though group A had a shorter hospitalization duration and fewer lower respiratory tract complications than group B. In addition, there was no significant difference in the clinical manifestations between oseltamivir-susceptible and oseltamivir-resistant strains of influenza A/H1N1.Establishment of guidelines to efficiently treat influenza with oseltamivir, a commonly used drug for treating influenza in Korean pediatric patients, and a treatment strategy with a new therapeutic agent is required. HubMed – drug


Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in pediatric patients.

Korean J Pediatr. 2013 Apr; 56(4): 145-50
Kim JW, Oh MM

Endoscopic treatment is a minimally invasive treatment for managing patients with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Although several bulking agents have been used for endoscopic treatment, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid is the only bulking agent currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating VUR. Endoscopic treatment of VUR has gained great popularity owing to several obvious benefits, including short operative time, short hospital stay, minimal invasiveness, high efficacy, low complication rate, and reduced cost. Initially, the success rates of endoscopic treatment have been lower than that of open antireflux surgery. However, because injection techniques have been developed, a recent study showed higher success rates of endoscopic treatment than open surgery in the treatment of patients with intermediate- and high-grade VUR. Despite the controversy surrounding its effectiveness, endoscopic treatment is considered a valuable treatment option and viable alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. HubMed – drug


Positive family history as the single traditional risk factor for developing extensive very premature coronary artery disease: a case report.

J Tehran Heart Cent. 2013 Jan; 8(1): 54-7
Ahmadi SH, Abbasi SH, Ugurlucan M, Bina P

Although coronary artery disease (CAD) is not common among individuals younger than 40-45 years of age, a small percentage of this age group needs to undergo surgical revascularization because of CAD. Why some people are at higher risk of developing premature CAD is not clearly known. Increased number of traditional risk factors or genetic predisposition may play significant roles in this regard. A 22-year-old man with a negative history for all traditional risk factors except for a family history of premature CAD referred to our center due to an episode of myocardial infarction of one month’s duration. He had no congenital heart disease and no hypercoagulable state, and there was a negative history of drug abuse. His coronary angiography showed extensive CAD. He underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and he left the hospital in good healthy condition. One year after surgery, his follow-up showed that he was symptom free and he still had no new traditional risk factor. It seems that a positive family history of premature CAD is an important and independent risk factor for developing premature CAD and individuals with this type of history should be treated more cautiously. HubMed – drug


Mid-Term Follow-Up of Drug-Eluting Stenting for In-Stent Restenosis: Bare-Metal Stents versus Drug-Eluting Stents.

J Tehran Heart Cent. 2013 Jan; 8(1): 14-20
Faramarzi N, Salarifar M, Kassaian SE, Zeinali AM, Alidoosti M, Pourhoseini H, Nematipour E, Mousavi MR, Goodarzynejad H

Despite major advances in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), in-stent restenosis (ISR) remains a therapeutic challenge. We sought to compare the mid-term clinical outcomes after treatment with repeat drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation (“DES sandwich” technique) with DES placement in the bare-metal stent (DES-in-BMS) in a “real world” setting.We retrospectively identified and analyzed clinical and angiographic data on 194 patients previously treated with the DES who underwent repeat PCI for ISR with a DES or a BMS. ISR was defined, by visual assessment, as a luminal stenosis greater than 50% within the stent or within 5 mm of its edges. We recorded the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and the need for target vessel revascularization (TVR).Of the 194 study participants, 130 were men (67.0%) and the mean ± SD of age was 57.0 ± 10.4 years, ranging from 37 to 80 years. In-hospital events (death and Q-wave myocardial infarction) occurred at a similar frequency in both groups. Outcomes at twelve months were also similar between the groups with cumulative clinical MACE at one-year follow-up of 9.6% and 11.3% in the DES-in-BMS and the DES-in-DES groups, respectively (p value = 0.702). Although not significant, there was a trend toward a higher TVR rate in the intra-DES ISR group as compared to the intra-BMS ISR group (0.9% BMS vs. 5.2% DES; p value = 0.16).Our study suggests that the outcome of the patients presenting with ISR did not seem to be different between the two groups of DES-in-DES and DES-in-BMS at one-year follow-up, except for a trend toward more frequent TVR in the DES-in-DES group. Repeat DES implantation for DES restenosis could be feasible and safe with a relatively low incidence of MACE at mid-term follow-up. HubMed – drug