The Effects of Rhythmic Sensory Cues on the Temporal Dynamics of Human Gait.

The effects of rhythmic sensory cues on the temporal dynamics of human gait.

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PLoS One. 2012; 7(8): e43104
Sejdi? E, Fu Y, Pak A, Fairley JA, Chau T

Walking is a complex, rhythmic task performed by the locomotor system. However, natural gait rhythms can be influenced by metronomic auditory stimuli, a phenomenon of particular interest in neurological rehabilitation. In this paper, we examined the effects of aural, visual and tactile rhythmic cues on the temporal dynamics associated with human gait. Data were collected from fifteen healthy adults in two sessions. Each session consisted of five 15-minute trials. In the first trial of each session, participants walked at their preferred walking speed. In subsequent trials, participants were asked to walk to a metronomic beat, provided through visually, aurally, tactile or all three cues (simultaneously and in sync), the pace of which was set to the preferred walking speed of the first trial. Using the collected data, we extracted several parameters including: gait speed, mean stride interval, stride interval variability, scaling exponent and maximum Lyapunov exponent. The extracted parameters showed that rhythmic sensory cues affect the temporal dynamics of human gait. The auditory rhythmic cue had the greatest influence on the gait parameters, while the visual cue had no statistically significant effect on the scaling exponent. These results demonstrate that visual rhythmic cues could be considered as an alternative cueing modality in rehabilitation without concern of adversely altering the statistical persistence of walking.
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A Systematic Review of the Clinimetric Properties of Habitual Physical Activity Measures in Young Children with a Motor Disability.

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Int J Pediatr. 2012; 2012: 976425
Oftedal S, Bell KL, Mitchell LE, Davies PS, Ware RS, Boyd RN

Aim. To identify and systematically review the clinimetric properties of habitual physical activity (HPA) measures in young children with a motor disability. Method. Five databases were searched for measures of HPA including: children aged <6.0 years with a neuromuscular disorder, physical activity defined as "bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles causing caloric expenditure", reported HPA as duration, frequency, intensity, mode or energy expenditure, and evaluated clinimetric properties. The quality of papers was assessed using the COSMIN-checklist. A targeted search of identified measures found additional studies of typically developing young children (TDC). Results. Seven papers assessing four activity monitors met inclusion criteria. Four studies were of good methodological quality. The Minimod had good ability to measure continuous walking but the demonstrated poor ability to measure steps during free-living activities. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity and Ambulatory Monitoring Pod showed poor ability to measure activity during both continuous walking and free-living activities. The StepWatch showed good ability to measure steps during continuous walking in TDC. Interpretation. Studies assessing the clinimetric properties of measures of HPA in this population are urgently needed to allow assessment of the relationship between HPA and health outcomes in this group. HubMed – rehab


Prevention and Treatment of Postoperative Infections after Sinus Elevation Surgery: Clinical Consensus and Recommendations.

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Int J Dent. 2012; 2012: 365809
Testori T, Drago L, Wallace SS, Capelli M, Galli F, Zuffetti F, Parenti A, Deflorian M, Fumagalli L, Weinstein RL, Maiorana C, Di Stefano D, Valentini P, Giannì AB, Chiapasco M, Vinci R, Pignataro L, Mantovani M, Torretta S, Pipolo C, Felisati G, Padoan G, Castelnuovo P, Mattina R, Del Fabbro M

Introduction. Maxillary sinus surgery is a reliable and predictable treatment option for the prosthetic rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla. Nevertheless, these interventions are not riskless of postoperative complications with respect to implant positioning in pristine bone. Aim. The aim of this paper is to report the results of a clinical consensus of experts (periodontists, implantologists, maxillofacial surgeons, ENT, and microbiology specialists) on several clinical questions and to give clinical recommendations on how to prevent, diagnose, and treat postoperative infections. Materials and Methods. A panel of experts in different fields of dentistry and medicine, after having reviewed the available literature on the topic and taking into account their long-standing clinical experience, gave their response to a series of clinical questions and reached a consensus. Results and Conclusion. The incidence of postop infections is relatively low (2%-5.6%). A multidisciplinary approach is advisable. A list of clinical recommendation are given.
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Exercise training prevents decrease in luminal capillary diameter of skeletal muscles in rats with type 2 diabetes.

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ScientificWorldJournal. 2012; 2012: 645891
Morifuji T, Murakami S, Fujita N, Kondo H, Fujino H

The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercise training can prevent microangiopathy of skeletal muscles in rats with type 2 diabetes and if succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, an indicator of mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activity, is involved in the prevention of microangiopathy. Six-week-old male Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and age-matched male Wistar rats (control group (Con)) were used. GK rats were randomly assigned to nonexercise (DB) and exercise (DBEx) groups. The DBEx group was trained on a treadmill 5 times a week for 3 weeks. No significant differences in the capillary-to-fibre ratio or the capillary density were observed between the 3 groups. The luminal capillary diameter of the DB group was significantly lower than that of the Con group, whereas the capillary diameter of the DBEx group was significantly higher than that of the DB group. In addition, SDH activity was significantly higher in the DBEx group than in the Con and DB groups. Microangiopathy of skeletal muscles in type 2 diabetes was correlated with a decrease in the luminal capillary diameter, which was prevented by exercise training. Thus, the mitochondrial oxidative capacity appears to be involved in the overall mechanism by which exercise prevents microangiopathy.
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