The Economic Burden of Depression in Switzerland.

The Economic Burden of Depression in Switzerland.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Pharmacoeconomics. 2013 Feb 16;
Tomonaga Y, Haettenschwiler J, Hatzinger M, Holsboer-Trachsler E, Rufer M, Hepp U, Szucs TD

BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of depression, information about the burden of this disease in Switzerland is scarce. A better knowledge of the costs of depression may provide important information for future national preventive programmes, optimizing cost-effective budgeting. The estimates of national costs may improve the public’s awareness of depression and depression-related costs, breaking down the taboo of depression as an illness. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to analyse the annual cost for different levels of depression and to investigate the annual economic burden of depression in Switzerland. METHODS: A retrospective, multicentre, non-interventional study in psychiatrist practices was carried out. Outpatients who had been diagnosed with depression in the last 3 years were included. Patient demographics and information on clinical characteristics and resource utilization in the first 12 months after diagnosis were collected. Costs analysis, subdivided into direct and indirect costs, was performed for three depression severity classes (mild, moderate and severe), according to the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17). Costs were also extrapolated to a national level. Regression analysis was performed to control for factors that may have an impact on the cost of depression. RESULTS: A total of 556 patients were included. Hospitalization and hospitalization days were directly correlated with disease severity (p < 0.001). Medical resource utilization linked to depression and antidepressant treatments was also correlated to the disease status. Severely depressed patients reported a significantly higher number of workdays lost and were significantly more often on disability insurance. The mean total direct costs per person per year, mainly due to hospitalization costs, were 3,561 for mild, 9,744 for moderate and 16,240 for severe depression. The mean indirect costs per person per year, mainly due to workdays lost, were 8,730 for mild, 12,675 for moderate and 16,669 for severe depression (year 2007/2008 values). Regression analysis showed that hospitalization days, psychiatrist visits in hospital, disability insurance, workdays lost and the HDRS-17 score were significantly correlated to the total costs. Extrapolation at a national level resulted in a total burden of about 8.1-8.3 billion per year. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of depression in Switzerland was estimated to be about 8 billion per year. The costs of depression were directly related to disease severity. However, since many cases of depression remain unreported and since this analysis only included individuals between 18 and 65 years of age, it is reasonable to suppose that the total burden of depression may be even higher.
HubMed – depression


Pharmacokinetics of Vilazodone in Patients with Mild or Moderate Renal Impairment.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Clin Drug Investig. 2013 Feb 16;
Boinpally R, Alcorn H, Adams MH, Longstreth J, Edwards J

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In patients with impaired renal function, the pharmacokinetics of a drug may be altered, resulting in decreased renal excretion or metabolism, and altered absorption, plasma protein binding or distribution. Vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT(1A) receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Vilazodone is extensively hepatically metabolized with minimal renal excretion. The primary objective of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of a single 20-mg dose of vilazodone in subjects with mild or moderate renal impairment. METHODS: This was a Phase 1, open-label, single-dose study of vilazodone in community-dwelling subjects with renal impairment and in healthy subjects to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of vilazodone in the presence of renal impairment. Thirty-two subjects were enrolled: eight subjects with mild (estimated glomerular filtration rate [est GFR] >50-80 mL/min) renal impairment matched individually by age, sex and body mass index to eight control subjects with normal renal function (est GFR >80 mL/min), and eight subjects with moderate (est GFR ?30-50 mL/min) renal impairment matched with eight control subjects with normal renal function. Subjects received a single, 20-mg dose of vilazodone and pharmacokinetics, safety and plasma protein binding were assessed for 14 days. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated were maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), time to maximum plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to 24 h, AUC from time zero to the last measurable concentration, AUC from time zero to infinity estimated by linear trapezoidal rule and extrapolation, oral clearance, terminal elimination rate constant, elimination half-life (t(½)), free fraction in plasma, apparent free drug clearance, amount of vilazodone recovered in urine 0-96 h following drug administration, percent of dose recovered in urine over 96 h following drug administration, renal clearance and volume of distribution. Safety assessments were adverse events, clinical laboratory test results, 12-lead electrocardiograms and vital signs. RESULTS: Vilazodone pharmacokinetic parameters in renally impaired subjects were variable but not substantially different from healthy controls. Mean values for vilazodone C(max) and AUC were similar among groups. Mean t(½) (35.7 and 34.8 h mild and moderate vs. 37.0 and 34.8 h matched controls), total drug clearance (19.9 and 25.1 L/h vs. 26.4 and 26.9 L/h), and mean vilazodone recovery in urine (1.21 % and 0.58 % vs. 0.95 % and 0.81 %) were similar for mild and moderate renally impaired subjects and matched controls with normal renal function. There were no apparent systematic trends in vilazodone pharmacokinetic parameters associated with decreasing renal function. Protein binding was variable (coefficient of variation, 29-65 %) but not substantially different among the three groups, and total drug clearance was not affected. Safety and tolerability of vilazodone were comparable in all groups of subjects. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that systemic exposure of vilazodone is not affected by mild or moderate renal impairment. No dose adjustments are recommended in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment.
HubMed – depression


[A Literature- and Expert-Based Analysis of the Outpatient Treatment of Depressive Ill People in Germany.]

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Psychiatr Prax. 2013 Feb 15;
Radisch J, Büchtemann D, Kästner D, Kopke K, Moock J, Rössler W, Bramesfeld A

Objective: This study analyses deficits in outpatient care for depressed persons in Germany and seeks to identify possibilities for improvement.Method: Literature search and expert interviews.Results: The outpatient depression care does not consider guidelines. A numerous possibilities to optimise outpatient treatment of depressive ill people were identified.Conclusions: Incentives should be systematically set to encourage services that are specific for treating chronic disorders. Systematic incentive for the improvement of the outpatient depression care should be given for example in particular for the achievements, which are important for the care of chronic disorders.
HubMed – depression



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