The Brain Activations for Both Cue-Induced Gaming Urge and Smoking Craving Among Subjects Comorbid With Internet Gaming Addiction and Nicotine Dependence.

The brain activations for both cue-induced gaming urge and smoking craving among subjects comorbid with Internet gaming addiction and nicotine dependence.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Psychiatr Res. 2012 Dec 13;
Ko CH, Liu GC, Yen JY, Yen CF, Chen CS, Lin WC

Internet gaming addiction (IGA) has been classified as an addictive disorder in the proposed DSM 5 draft. However, whether its underlying addiction mechanism is similar to other substance use disorders has not been confirmed. The present functional magnetic resonance images study is aimed at evaluating the brain correlates of cue-induced gaming urge or smoking craving in subjects with both IGA and nicotine dependence to make a simultaneous comparison of cue induced brain reactivity for gaming and smoking. For this purpose, 16 subjects with both IGA and nicotine dependence (comorbid group) and 16 controls were recruited from the community. All subjects were made to undergo 3-T fMRIs scans while viewing images associated with online games, smoking, and neutral images, which were arranged according to an event-related design. The resultant image data was analyzed with full factorial and conjunction analysis of SPM5. The results demonstrate that anterior cingulate, and parahippocampus activates higher for both cue-induced gaming urge and smoking craving among the comorbid group in comparison to the control group. The conjunction analysis demonstrates that bilateral parahippocampal gyrus activates to a greater degree for both gaming urge and smoking craving among the comorbid group in comparison to the control group. Accordingly, the study demonstrates that both IGA and nicotine dependence share similar mechanisms of cue-induced reactivity over the fronto-limbic network, particularly for the parahippocampus. The results support that the context representation provided by the parahippocampus is a key mechanism for not only cue-induced smoking craving, but also for cue-induced gaming urge.
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Neural and Behavioral Effects of a Novel Mu Opioid Receptor Antagonist in Binge-Eating Obese People.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Dec 13;
Cambridge VC, Ziauddeen H, Nathan PJ, Subramaniam N, Dodds C, Chamberlain SR, Koch A, Maltby K, Skeggs AL, Napolitano A, Sadaf Farooqi I, Bullmore ET, Fletcher PC

BACKGROUND: Binge eating is associated with obesity and has been conceptualized as “food addiction.” However, this view has received only inconsistent support in humans, and limited evidence relates key neurocircuitry to the disorder. Moreover, relatively few studies have used pharmacologic functional magnetic resonance imaging to probe the underlying basis of altered eating behaviors. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study, we explored the effects of a potent mu-opioid receptor antagonist, GSK1521498, in obese individuals with moderate binge eating. Subjects were tested during a baseline placebo run-in period and retested after 28-days of drug (n = 21) or placebo (n = 21) treatment. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral measures, we determined the drug’s effects on brain responses to food images and, separately, on motivation to expend energy to view comparable images. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, GSK1521498 was associated with a significant reduction in pallidum/putamen responses to pictures of high-calorie food and a reduction in motivation to view images of high-calorie food. Intriguingly, although motivational responding was reduced, subjective liking for the same images actually increased following drug treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Stimulus-specific putamen/pallidal responses in obese people with binge eating are sensitive to altered mu-opioid function. This neuromodulation was accompanied by reductions in motivational responding, as measured by grip force, although subjective liking responses to the same stimuli actually increased. As well as providing evidence for a link between the opioid system and food-related behavior in binge-eating obese individuals, these results support a dissociation across measures of motivation and liking associated with food-related stimuli in these individuals.
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Smoking and the Bandit: A Preliminary Study of Smoker and Nonsmoker Differences in Exploratory Behavior Measured With a Multiarmed Bandit Task.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012 Dec 17;
Addicott MA, Pearson JM, Wilson J, Platt ML, McClernon FJ

Advantageous decision-making is an adaptive trade-off between exploring alternatives and exploiting the most rewarding option. This trade-off may be related to maladaptive decision-making associated with nicotine dependence; however, explore/exploit behavior has not been previously investigated in the context of addiction. The explore/exploit trade-off is captured by the multiarmed bandit task, in which different arms of a slot machine are chosen to discover the relative payoffs. The goal of this study was to preliminarily investigate whether smokers differ from nonsmokers in their degree of exploratory behavior. Smokers (n = 18) and nonsmokers (n = 17) completed a 6-armed bandit task as well as self-report measures of behavior and personality traits. Smokers were found to exhibit less exploratory behavior (i.e., made fewer switches between slot machine arms) than nonsmokers within the first 300 trials of the bandit task. The overall proportion of exploratory choices negatively correlated with self-reported measures of delay aversion and nonplanning impulsivity. These preliminary results suggest that smokers make fewer initial exploratory choices on the bandit task. The bandit task is a promising measure that could provide valuable insights into how nicotine use and dependence is associated with explore/exploit decision-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
HubMed – addiction


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