Testing Jessor’s Problem Behavior Theory and Syndrome: A Nationally Representative Comparative Sample of Latino and African American Adolescents.

Testing Jessor’s problem behavior theory and syndrome: A nationally representative comparative sample of Latino and African American adolescents.

Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2013 Apr; 19(2): 190-9
Mobley M, Chun H

Based on Jessor’s problem behavior theory (PBT; R. Jessor, 1987, Problem-behavior theory, psychosocial development, and adolescent problem drinking, British Journal of Addiction, Vol. 82, pp. 331-342), the comparability of a second-order problem behavior model (SPBM) was investigated employing structural equation modeling (SEM) and latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement were examined among racial/ethnic adolescents. Within a span of nearly 25 years, this study represents the first nationally representative sample of Latino and African American adolescents utilized in testing Jessor’s PBT and problem behavior syndrome (PBS). Using a sample of 5,831 Latino, African American, and European American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a series of invariance tests evidenced support for Jessor’s PBT and PBS. Latent mean difference test results evidenced significant differences in problem behaviors (e.g., academic failure [AF], aggression [AG], substance use [SU], and risky sexual activity[RSA]) across racial/ethnic adolescent groups, which could be explained partially by PBS. A discussion of findings, limitations, and recommendations for future research is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). HubMed – addiction


New molecular insights in tobacco-induced lung cancer.

Future Oncol. 2013 May; 9(5): 649-55
Tonini G, D’Onofrio L, Dell’aquila E, Pezzuto A

We know that cigarette smoking is a leading preventable cause of carcinogenesis in lung cancer. Cigarette smoke is a mixture of more than 5000 chemical compounds, among which more than 60 are recognized to have a specific carcinogenic potential. Carcinogens and their metabolites (i.e., N-nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) can activate multiple pathways, contributing to lung cell transformation in different ways. Nicotine, originally thought only to be responsible for tobacco addiction, is also involved in tumor promotion and progression with antiapoptotic and indirect mitogenic properties. Lung nodules are frequent in smokers and can be transformed into malignant tumors depending on persistant smoking status. Even if detailed mechanisms underlying tobacco-induced cancerogenesis are not completely elucitated, this report collects the emergent body of knowledge in order to simplify the extremely complex framework that links smoking exposure to lung cancer. HubMed – addiction


Perceptions of Relative Risk of Disease and Addiction From Cigarettes and Snus.

Psychol Addict Behav. 2013 May 6;
Lund I, Scheffels J

The public is largely unaware of the lower global risk associated with snus compared with that of cigarettes, but little is known of perceptions of relative risks for specific diseases. Inveterate, daily, and nondaily smokers’ perceptions of the relative snus/cigarette risk of cardiovascular disease, and of cancer of the lung, stomach, and oral cavity, and perceptions among smokers, snus users, and dual users of the relative risk of nicotine addiction, was studied in a pooled sample from annual national surveys (2008-2011) performed by Statistics Norway. The total sample included 2,661 ever smokers and snus users aged 15-79 years old. Fifty-three percent were men, and the average age was 46.1 year. Compared with medical consensus, all smoker groups overestimated the relative risks of diseases from snus use, and inveterate smokers overestimated them significantly more than other groups. For all diseases except lung cancer, the majority of smokers thought snus users were running a higher or equal risk. For lung cancer, 22% believed that snus use gave a higher or equal risk. Smokers, snus users, and dual users tended to think that snus and cigarettes were equally addictive products, while a somewhat higher proportion of those who had quit both products thought that cigarettes were more addictive. Increased knowledge of the relative health risks might give smokers an incitement to switch to snus and prompt current dual users to stop smoking completely. Awareness could be improved by tailoring information at targeted groups, for example via the health care system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). HubMed – addiction



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