Stuttering Interneurons Generate Fast and Robust Inhibition Onto Projection Neurons With Low Capacity of Short Term Modulation in Mouse Lateral Amygdala.

Stuttering Interneurons Generate Fast and Robust Inhibition onto Projection Neurons with Low Capacity of Short Term Modulation in Mouse Lateral Amygdala.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(3): e60154
Song C, Xu XB, He Y, Liu ZP, Wang M, Zhang X, Li BM, Pan BX

The stuttering interneurons (STi) represent one minor subset of interneuron population and exhibit characteristic stuttering firing upon depolarization current injection. While it has been long held that the GABAergic inhibitory transmission largely varies with the subtype identity of presynaptic interneurons, whether such a rule also applies to STi is largely unknown. Here, by paired recording of interneuron and their neighboring projection neuron in lateral amygdala, we found that relative to the fast spiking and late spiking interneurons, the STi-evoked unitary postsynaptic currents onto the projection neurons had markedly larger amplitude, shorter onset latency and faster rising and decay kinetics. The quantal content and the number of vesicles in the readily releasable pool were also larger in synapses made by STi versus other interneurons. Moreover, the short-term plasticity, as reflected by the paired pulse depression and depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition, was the least prominent in the output synapses of STi. Thus, the fast and robust inhibition together with its low capacity of short term modulation may suggest an important role for STi in preventing the overexcitation of the projection neurons and thus gating the information traffic in amygdala. HubMed – depression


Burden of Infectious Diseases, Substance Use Disorders, and Mental Illness among Ukrainian Prisoners Transitioning to the Community.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(3): e59643
Azbel L, Wickersham JA, Grishaev Y, Dvoryak S, Altice FL

The epidemics of incarceration, substance use disorders (SUDs), and infectious diseases are inextricably intertwined, especially in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Few objective data documenting this relationship regionally are available. We therefore conducted a comprehensive, representative country-wide prison health survey in Ukraine, where one of the world’s most volatile HIV epidemics persists, in order to address HIV prevention and treatment needs.A nation-wide, multi-site randomly sampled biobehavioral health survey was conducted in four Ukrainian regions in 13 prisons among individuals being released within six months. After consent, participants underwent standardized health assessment surveys and serological testing for HIV, viral hepatitis, and syphilis.Of the 402 participants (mean age?=?31.9 years), 20.1% were female. Prevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV, and syphilis was 19.4% (95% CI?=?15.5%-23.3%), 60.2% (95% CI?=?55.1%-65.4%), 5.2% (95% CI?=?3.3%-7.2%), and 10% (95% CI?=?7.4%-13.2%), respectively, with regional differences observed; HIV prevalence in the south was 28.6%. Among the 78 HIV-infected inmates, 50.7% were unaware of their HIV status and 44 (56.4%) had CD4<350 cells/mL, of which only five (11%) antiretroviral-eligible inmates were receiving it. Nearly half of the participants (48.7%) reported pre-incarcertion drug injection, primarily of opioids, yet multiple substance use (31.6%) and alcohol use disorders (56.6%) were common and 40.3% met screening criteria for depression.This is the only such representative health study of prisoners in the FSU. This study has important implications for regional prevention and treatment because, unlike elsewhere, there is no recent evidence for reduction in HIV incidence and mortality in the region. The prevalence of infectious diseases and SUDs is high among this sample of prisoners transitioning to the community. It is critical to address pre- and post-release prevention and treatment needs with the development of linkage programs for the continuity of care in the community after release. HubMed – depression


Depression and incident dementia. An 8-year population-based prospective study.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(3): e59246
Luppa M, Luck T, Ritschel F, Angermeyer MC, Villringer A, Riedel-Heller SG

The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of depression (categorical diagnosis; major depression, MD) and depressive symptoms (dimensional diagnosis and symptom patterns) on incident dementia in the German general population.Within the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA 75+), a representative sample of 1,265 individuals aged 75 years and older were interviewed every 1.5 years over 8 years (mean observation time 4.3 years; mean number of visits 4.2). Cox proportional hazards and binary logistic regressions were used to estimate the effect of baseline depression and depressive symptoms on incident dementia.The incidence of dementia was 48 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI) 45-51). Depressive symptoms (Hazard ratio HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05), and in particular mood-related symptoms (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.14), showed a significant impact on the incidence of dementia only in univariate analysis, but not after adjustment for cognitive and functional impairment. MD showed only a significant impact on incidence of dementia in Cox proportional hazards regression, but not in binary logistic regression models.The present study using different diagnostic measures of depression on future dementia found no clear significant associations of depression and incident dementia. Further in-depth investigation would help to understand the nature of depression in the context of incident dementia. HubMed – depression



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