Functionalized Graphene Oxide Mediated Adriamycin Delivery and miR-21 Gene Silencing to Overcome Tumor Multidrug Resistance in Vitro.

Functionalized Graphene Oxide Mediated Adriamycin Delivery and miR-21 Gene Silencing to Overcome Tumor Multidrug Resistance In Vitro.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(3): e60034
Zhi F, Dong H, Jia X, Guo W, Lu H, Yang Y, Ju H, Zhang X, Hu Y

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major impediment to successful cancer chemotherapy. Co-delivery of novel MDR-reversing agents and anticancer drugs to cancer cells holds great promise for cancer treatment. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) overexpression is associated with the development and progression of MDR in breast cancer, and it is emerging as a novel and promising MDR-reversing target. In this study, a multifunctional nanocomplex, composed of polyethylenimine (PEI)/poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonates) (PSS)/graphene oxide (GO) and termed PPG, was prepared using the layer-by-layer assembly method to evaluate the reversal effects of PPG as a carrier for adriamycin (ADR) along with miR-21 targeted siRNA (anti-miR-21) in cancer drug resistance. ADR was firstly loaded onto the PPG surface (PPGADR) by physical mixing and anti-miR-21 was sequentially loaded onto PPGADR through electric absorption to form (anti-miR-21)PPGADR. Cell experiments showed that PPG significantly enhanced the accumulation of ADR in MCF-7/ADR cells (an ADR resistant breast cancer cell line) and exhibited much higher cytotoxicity than free ADR, suggesting that PPG could effectively reverse ADR resistance of MCF-7/ADR. Furthermore, the enhanced therapeutic efficacy of PPG could be correlated with effective silencing of miR-21 and with increased accumulation of ADR in drug-resistant tumor cells. The endocytosis study confirmed that PPG could effectively carry drug molecules into cells via the caveolae and clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathways. These results suggest that this PPG could be a potential and efficient non-viral vector for reversing MDR, and the strategy of combining anticancer drugs with miRNA therapy to overcome MDR could be an attractive approach in cancer treatment. HubMed – drug


Infective endocarditis in the u.s., 1998-2009: a nationwide study.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(3): e60033
Bor DH, Woolhandler S, Nardin R, Brusch J, Himmelstein DU

Previous studies based on local case series estimated the annual incidence of endocarditis in the U.S. at about 4 per 100,000 population. Small-scale studies elsewhere have reported similar incidence rates. However, no nationally-representative population-based studies have verified these estimates.Using the 1998-2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, which provides diagnoses from about 8 million U.S. hospitalizations annually, we examined endocarditis hospitalizations, bacteriology, co-morbidities, outcomes and costs. Hospital admissions for endocarditis rose from 25,511 in 1998 to 38, 976 in 2009 (12.7 per 100,000 population in 2009). The age-adjusted endocarditis admission rate increased 2.4% annually. The proportion of patients with intra-cardiac devices rose from 13.3% to 18.9%, while the share with drug use and/or HIV fell. Mortality remained stable at about 14.5%, as did cardiac valve replacement (9.6%). Other serious complications increased; 13.3% of patients in 2009 suffered a stroke or CNS infection, and 5.5% suffered myocardial infarction. Amongst cases with identified pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus was the most common, increasing from 37.6% in 1998 to 49.3% in 2009, 53.3% of which were MRSA. Streptococci were mentioned in 24.7% of cases, gram-negatives in 5.6% and Candida species in 1.0%. We detected no inflection in hospitalization rates after changes in prophylaxis recommendations in 2007. Mean age rose from 58.6 to 60.8 years; elderly patients suffered higher rates of myocardial infarction and death, but slightly lower rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections and neurologic complications. Our study relied on clinically diagnosed cases of endocarditis that may not meet strict criteria. Moreover, since some patients are discharged and readmitted during a single episode of endocarditis, our hospitalization figures probably slightly overstate the true incidence of this illness.Endocarditis is more common in the U.S. than previously believed, and is steadily increasing. Preventive efforts should focus on device-associated and health-care-associated infections. HubMed – drug


Rectal Transmission of Transmitted/Founder HIV-1 Is Efficiently Prevented by Topical 1% Tenofovir in BLT Humanized Mice.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(3): e60024
Chateau ML, Denton PW, Swanson MD, McGowan I, Garcia JV

Rectal microbicides are being developed to prevent new HIV infections in both men and women. We focused our in vivo preclinical efficacy study on rectally-applied tenofovir. BLT humanized mice (n?=?43) were rectally inoculated with either the primary isolate HIV-1JRCSF or the MSM-derived transmitted/founder (T/F) virus HIV-1THRO within 30 minutes following treatment with topical 1% tenofovir or vehicle. Under our experimental conditions, in the absence of drug treatment we observed 50% and 60% rectal transmission by HIV-1JRCSF and HIV-1THRO, respectively. Topical tenofovir reduced rectal transmission to 8% (1/12; log rank p?=?0.03) for HIV-1JRCSF and 0% (0/6; log rank p?=?0.02) for HIV-1THRO. This is the first demonstration that any human T/F HIV-1 rectally infects humanized mice and that transmission of the T/F virus can be efficiently blocked by rectally applied 1% tenofovir. These results obtained in BLT mice, along with recent ex vivo, Phase 1 trial and non-human primate reports, provide a critically important step forward in the development of tenofovir-based rectal microbicides. HubMed – drug