Specificity of Psychological Treatments for Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder? a Meta-Analysis of Direct Comparisons.

Specificity of psychological treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder? A meta-analysis of direct comparisons.

Clin Psychol Rev. 2013 Jan 28; 33(3): 460-469
Spielmans GI, Benish SG, Marin C, Bowman WM, Menster M, Wheeler AJ

Treatment guidelines state that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy are the best-supported psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa (BN) and that CBT is the preferred psychological treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). However, no meta-analysis which both examined direct comparisons between psychological treatments for BN and BED and considered the role of moderating variables, such as the degree to which psychotherapy was bona fide, has previously been conducted Thus, such an analysis was undertaken. We included 77 comparisons reported in 53 studies. The results indicated that: (a) bona fide therapies outperformed non-bona fide treatments, (b) bona fide CBT outperformed bona fide non-CBT interventions by a statistically significant margin (only approaching statistical significance for BN and BED when examined individually), but many of these trials had confounds which limited their internal validity, (c) full CBT treatments offered no benefit over their components, and (d) the distribution of effect size differences between bona fide CBT treatments was homogeneously distributed around zero. These findings provide little support for treatment specificity in psychotherapy for BN and BED. HubMed – eating


Neuropeptide-Gated Perception of Appetitive Olfactory Inputs in Drosophila Larvae.

Cell Rep. 2013 Feb 26;
Wang Y, Pu Y, Shen P

Understanding how smell or taste translates into behavior remains challenging. We have developed a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila larvae to investigate reception and processing of appetitive olfactory inputs in higher-order olfactory centers. We found that the brief presentation of appetitive odors caused fed larvae to display impulsive feeding of sugar-rich food. Deficiencies in the signaling of neuropeptide F (NPF), the fly counterpart of neuropeptide Y (NPY), blocked appetitive odor-induced feeding by disrupting dopamine (DA)-mediated higher-order olfactory processing. We have identified a small number of appetitive odor-responsive dopaminergic neurons (DL2) whose activation mimics the behavioral effect of appetitive odor stimulation. Both NPF and DL2 neurons project to the secondary olfactory processing center; NPF and its receptor NPFR1 mediate a gating mechanism for reception of olfactory inputs in DL2 neurons. Our findings suggest that eating for reward value is an ancient behavior and that fly larvae are useful for studying neurobiology and the evolution of olfactory reward-driven behavior. HubMed – eating


Factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in male and female college athletes.

Body Image. 2013 Feb 28;
Darcy AM, Hardy KK, Crosby RD, Lock J, Peebles R

The study explored the psychometric properties of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among 1637 university students. Participants were divided into male (n=432) and female (n=544) competitive athletes, and male (n=229) and female (n=429) comparison groups comprised of individuals who had not engaged in competitive sports for at least one year. All groups were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the fit of the published factor structure in this population, and then exploratory FA (EFA). A three-factor solution was the best fit for three out of four groups, with a two-factor solution providing best fit for the male comparison group. The first factor for all groups resembled a combined Shape and Weight Concern subscale. The factor structure among male and female competitive athletes was remarkably similar; however, non-competitive athletic/low activity males appear qualitatively different from other groups. HubMed – eating


Status Update: Maladaptive Facebook usage predicts increases in body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms.

J Affect Disord. 2013 Feb 28;
Smith AR, Hames JL, Joiner TE

BACKGROUND: The current study examined the effects of online social evaluations and comparisons on body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms. METHODS: We tested the effects of maladaptive Facebook usage (defined as the tendency to seek negative social evaluations and/or engage in social comparisons via Facebook) on body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms in a sample of 232 college females followed for approximately 4 weeks. RESULTS: Results provided evidence that maladaptive Facebook usage significantly predicted increases in bulimic symptoms and episodes of over-eating approximately four weeks later. Body dissatisfaction was found to fully mediate the relationship between maladaptive Facebook usage and increases in over-eating episodes, whereas body dissatisfaction partially mediated the relationship between maladaptive Facebook usage and increases in bulimic symptoms more broadly. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include the use of a novel measure of maladaptive Facebook usage due to the absence of an existing measure and a non-clinical sample. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that reducing maladaptive Facebook usage may be a fruitful target for interventions aimed at reducing body dissatisfaction and symptoms of eating pathology. HubMed – eating


Novel diet for patients with impaired mastication evaluated by consumption rate, nutrition intake, and questionnaire.

Nutrition. 2013 Feb 28;
Higashiguchi T

OBJECTIVE: “iEat®” (EN Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.; study diet), a food product that resembles an ordinary meal in appearance but is cooked to soften, was compared with foods provided to patients with impaired mastication (modified traditional diet) to investigate the influence of the appearance of foods on the consumption rate, dietary nutrition intake, and satisfaction level. METHODS: After serving the study participants the modified traditional diet on days 1 and 2, the study diet on days 3, 4, and 5, and the modified traditional diet on days 6 and 7, the consumption rates were measured by weight difference. The amounts of dietary nutrition intake were calculated from the consumption rates. Satisfaction levels were evaluated by a questionnaire completed by the participants and their health care professionals after each meal. RESULTS: No significant difference in consumption rates was observed between the study diet and the modified traditional diet. The amounts of dietary nutrition intake of energy and protein were significantly higher for the study diet than for the modified traditional diet. The study diet showed higher satisfaction levels in terms of “appearance” when evaluated by the participants, and “joy of eating” and “overall satisfaction level” when evaluated by the health care professionals. CONCLUSION: The study diet has potential to become a new dietary option for patients with impaired mastication. HubMed – eating



Portia’s quotations about her eating disorder – My favorite parts. Actress and author Portia de Rossi talks about her new memoir “Unbearable Lightness” on many TV talk shows. All of these are my favorite Portia’s quotations about her eating disorder. Thanks Portia. I hope this book – “Unbearable Lightness” – will help lots of people in many different ways. I’m glad that you find and accept yourself in what the way you are and live with happiness. I own nothing. No copyright infringement intended. All rights go to their respective owners. Credits : Shows : The Ellen DeGeneres Show, Good Morning America, The Oprah Winfrey Show Youtube : courtneypmbowie, ForLifeIsTooShort3