Prenatal Metformin Exposure in Mice Programs the Metabolic Phenotype of the Offspring During a High Fat Diet at Adulthood.

Prenatal Metformin Exposure in Mice Programs the Metabolic Phenotype of the Offspring during a High Fat Diet at Adulthood.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e56594
Salomäki H, Vähätalo LH, Laurila K, Jäppinen NT, Penttinen AM, Ailanen L, Ilyasizadeh J, Pesonen U, Koulu M

The antidiabetic drug metformin is currently used prior and during pregnancy for polycystic ovary syndrome, as well as during gestational diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of prenatal metformin exposure on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring during adulthood in mice.Metformin (300 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered orally to dams on regular diet from the embryonic day E0.5 to E17.5. Gene expression profiles in liver and brain were analysed from 4-day old offspring by microarray. Body weight development and several metabolic parameters of offspring were monitored both during regular diet (RD-phase) and high fat diet (HFD-phase). At the end of the study, two doses of metformin or vehicle were given acutely to mice at the age of 20 weeks, and Insig-1 and GLUT4 mRNA expressions in liver and fat tissue were analysed using qRT-PCR.Metformin exposed fetuses were lighter at E18.5. There was no effect of metformin on the maternal body weight development or food intake. Metformin exposed offspring gained more body weight and mesenteric fat during the HFD-phase. The male offspring also had impaired glucose tolerance and elevated fasting glucose during the HFD-phase. Moreover, the expression of GLUT4 mRNA was down-regulated in epididymal fat in male offspring prenatally exposed to metformin. Based on the microarray and subsequent qRT-PCR analyses, the expression of Insig-1 was changed in the liver of neonatal mice exposed to metformin prenatally. Furthermore, metformin up-regulated the expression of Insig-1 later in development. Gene set enrichment analysis based on preliminary microarray data identified several differentially enriched pathways both in control and metformin exposed mice.The present study shows that prenatal metformin exposure causes long-term programming effects on the metabolic phenotype during high fat diet in mice. This should be taken into consideration when using metformin as a therapeutic agent during pregnancy. HubMed – drug


Predicting chemical toxicity effects based on chemical-chemical interactions.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e56517
Chen L, Lu J, Zhang J, Feng KR, Zheng MY, Cai YD

Toxicity is a major contributor to high attrition rates of new chemical entities in drug discoveries. In this study, an order-classifier was built to predict a series of toxic effects based on data concerning chemical-chemical interactions under the assumption that interactive compounds are more likely to share similar toxicity profiles. According to their interaction confidence scores, the order from the most likely toxicity to the least was obtained for each compound. Ten test groups, each of them containing one training dataset and one test dataset, were constructed from a benchmark dataset consisting of 17,233 compounds. By a Jackknife test on each of these test groups, the 1 order prediction accuracies of the training dataset and the test dataset were all approximately 79.50%, substantially higher than the rate of 25.43% achieved by random guesses. Encouraged by the promising results, we expect that our method will become a useful tool in screening out drugs with high toxicity. HubMed – drug


Modulation of Functional EEG Networks by the NMDA Antagonist Nitrous Oxide.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e56434
Kuhlmann L, Foster BL, Liley DT

Parietal networks are hypothesised to play a central role in the cortical information synthesis that supports conscious experience and behavior. Significant reductions in parietal level functional connectivity have been shown to occur during general anesthesia with propofol and a range of other GABAergic general anesthetic agents. Using two analysis approaches (1) a graph theoretic analysis based on surrogate-corrected zero-lag correlations of scalp EEG, and (2) a global coherence analysis based on the EEG cross-spectrum, we reveal that sedation with the NMDA receptor antagonist nitrous oxide (NO), an agent that has quite different electroencephalographic effects compared to the inductive general anesthetics, also causes significant alterations in parietal level functional networks, as well as changes in full brain and frontal level networks. A total of 20 subjects underwent NO inhalation at either 20%, 40% or 60% peak NO/O gas concentration levels. NO-induced reductions in parietal network level functional connectivity (on the order of 50%) were exclusively detected by utilising a surface Laplacian derivation, suggesting that superficial, smaller spatial scale, cortical networks were most affected. In contrast reductions in frontal network functional connectivity were optimally discriminated using a common-reference derivation (reductions on the order of 10%), indicating that the NMDA antagonist NO induces spatially coherent and widespread perturbations in frontal activity. Our findings not only give important weight to the idea of agent invariant final network changes underlying drug-induced reductions in consciousness, but also provide significant impetus for the application and development of multiscale functional analyses to systematically characterise the network level cortical effects of NMDA receptor related hypofunction. Future work at the source space level will be needed to verify the consistency between cortical network changes seen at the source level and those presented here at the EEG sensor space level. HubMed – drug


Rapid inverse planning for pressure-driven drug infusions in the brain.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e56397
Rosenbluth KH, Martin AJ, Mittermeyer S, Eschermann J, Dickinson PJ, Bankiewicz KS

Infusing drugs directly into the brain is advantageous to oral or intravenous delivery for large molecules or drugs requiring high local concentrations with low off-target exposure. However, surgeons manually planning the cannula position for drug delivery in the brain face a challenging three-dimensional visualization task. This study presents an intuitive inverse-planning technique to identify the optimal placement that maximizes coverage of the target structure while minimizing the potential for leakage outside the target. The technique was retrospectively validated using intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of infusions into the striatum of non-human primates and into a tumor in a canine model and applied prospectively to upcoming human clinical trials. HubMed – drug