Sex-Dimorphic Adverse Drug Reactions to Immune Suppressive Agents in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Sex-dimorphic adverse drug reactions to immune suppressive agents in inflammatory bowel disease.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Dec 21; 18(47): 6967-73
Zelinkova Z, Bultman E, Vogelaar L, Bouziane C, Kuipers EJ, van der Woude CJ

To analyze sex differences in adverse drug reactions (ADR) to the immune suppressive medication in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients.All IBD patients attending the IBD outpatient clinic of a referral hospital were identified through the electronic diagnosis registration system. The electronic medical records of IBD patients were reviewed and the files of those patients who have used immune suppressive therapy for IBD, i.e., thiopurines, methotrexate, cyclosporine, tacrolimus and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents (anti-TNF); infliximab (IFX), adalimumab (ADA) and/or certolizumab, were further analyzed. The reported ADR to immune suppressive drugs were noted. The general definition of ADR used in clinical practice comprised the occurrence of the ADR in the temporal relationship with its disappearance upon discontinuation of the medication. Patients for whom the required information on drug use and ADR was not available in the electronic medical record and patients with only one registered contact and no further follow-up at the outpatient clinic were excluded. The difference in the incidence and type of ADR between male and female IBD patients were analyzed statistically by ?(2) test.In total, 1009 IBD patients were identified in the electronic diagnosis registration system. Out of these 1009 patients, 843 patients were eligible for further analysis. There were 386 males (46%), mean age 42 years (range: 16-87 years) with a mean duration of the disease of 14 years (range: 0-54 years); 578 patients with Crohn’s disease, 244 with ulcerative colitis and 21 with unclassified colitis. Seventy percent (586 pts) of patients used any kind of immune suppressive agents at a certain point of the disease course, the majority of the patients (546 pts, 65%) used thiopurines, 176 pts (21%) methotrexate, 46 pts (5%) cyclosporine and one patient tacrolimus. One third (240 pts, 28%) of patients were treated with anti-TNF, the majority of patients (227 pts, 27%) used IFX, 99 (12%) used ADA and five patients certolizumab. There were no differences between male and female patients in the use of immune suppressive agents. With regards to ADR, no differences between males and females were observed in the incidence of ADR to thiopurines, methotrexate and cyclosporine. Among 77 pts who developed ADR to one or more anti-TNF agents, significantly more females (54 pts, 39% of all anti-TNF treated women) than males (23 pts, 23% of all anti-TNF treated men) experienced ADR to an anti-TNF agent [P = 0.011; odds ratio (OR) 2.2, 95%CI 1.2-3.8]. The most frequent ADR to both anti-TNF agents, IFX and ADA, were allergic reactions (15% of all IFX users and 7% of all patients treated with ADA) and for both agents a significantly higher rate of allergic reactions in females compared with males was observed. As a result of ADR, 36 patients (15% of all patients using anti-TNF) stopped the treatment, with significantly higher stopping rate among females (27 females, 19% vs 9 males, 9%, P = 0.024).Treatment with anti-TNF antibodies is accompanied by sexual dimorphic profile of ADR with female patients being more at risk for allergic reactions and subsequent discontinuation of the treatment.
HubMed – drug


Liver bioengineering: Current status and future perspectives.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Dec 21; 18(47): 6926-34
Booth C, Soker T, Baptista P, Ross CL, Soker S, Farooq U, Stratta RJ, Orlando G

The present review aims to illustrate the strategies that are being implemented to regenerate or bioengineer livers for clinical purposes. There are two general pathways to liver bioengineering and regeneration. The first consists of creating a supporting scaffold, either synthetically or by decellularization of human or animal organs, and seeding cells on the scaffold, where they will mature either in bioreactors or in vivo. This strategy seems to offer the quickest route to clinical translation, as demonstrated by the development of liver organoids from rodent livers which were repopulated with organ specific cells of animal and/or human origin. Liver bioengineering has potential for transplantation and for toxicity testing during preclinical drug development. The second possibility is to induce liver regeneration of dead or resected tissue by manipulating cell pathways. In fact, it is well known that the liver has peculiar regenerative potential which allows hepatocyte hyperplasia after amputation of liver volume. Infusion of autologous bone marrow cells, which aids in liver regeneration, into patients was shown to be safe and to improve their clinical condition, but the specific cells responsible for liver regeneration have not yet been determined and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. A complete understanding of the cell pathways and dynamics and of the functioning of liver stem cell niche is necessary for the clinical translation of regenerative medicine strategies. As well, it will be crucial to elucidate the mechanisms through which cells interact with the extracellular matrix, and how this latter supports and drives cell fate.
HubMed – drug


Polyphenol E Enhances the Antitumor Immune Response in Neuroblastoma by Inactivating Myeloid Suppressor Cells.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Jan 15;
Santilli G, Piotrowska I, Cantilena S, Chayka O, D’Alicarnasso M, Morgenstern DA, Himoudi N, Pearson K, Anderson J, Thrasher AJ, Sala A

PURPOSE: Neuroblastoma is a rare childhood cancer whose high risk, metastatic form has a dismal outcome in spite of aggressive therapeutic interventions. The toxicity of drug treatments is a major problem in this pediatric setting. In this study, we investigated whether Polyphenon E, a clinical grade mixture of green tea catechins under evaluation in multiple clinical cancer trials run by the National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD), has anticancer activity in mouse models of neuroblastoma.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used three neuroblastoma models: (i) transgenic TH-MYCN mouse developing spontaneous neuroblastomas; (ii) nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice xenotransplanted with human SHSY5Y cells; and (iii) A/J mice transplanted with syngeneic Neuro 2A cells. Mice were randomized in control and Polyphenon E-drinking groups. Blood from patients with neuroblastoma and normal controls was used to assess the phenotype and function of myeloid cells.RESULTS: Polyphenon E reduced the number of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, and inhibited the development of spontaneous neuroblastomas in TH-MYCN transgenic mice. In therapeutic models of neuroblastoma in A/J, but not in immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice, Polyphenon E inhibited tumor growth by acting on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and CD8 T cells. In vitro, Polyphenon E impaired the development and motility of MDSCs and promoted differentiation to more neutrophilic forms through the 67 kDa laminin receptor signaling and induction of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. The proliferation of T cells infiltrating a patient metastasis was reactivated by Polyphenon E.CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the neuroblastoma-promoting activity of MDSCs can be manipulated pharmacologically in vivo and that green tea catechins operate, at least in part, through this mechanism. Clin Cancer Res; 19(5); 1-10. ©2012 AACR.
HubMed – drug


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