Depression Treatment: Poor Social Support Is Associated With Increases in Depression but Not Anxiety Over 2 Years in Heart Failure Outpatients.

Poor Social Support Is Associated With Increases in Depression but Not Anxiety Over 2 Years in Heart Failure Outpatients.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2013 Jan 14;
Friedmann E, Son H, Thomas SA, Chapa DW, Lee HJ,

BACKGROUND:: Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem in the United States, affecting 5.7 million American adults. Psychosocial distress, in particular depression, contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients with HF. Little is known about the interrelationship among disease severity, social support, and depression. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to examine the contributions of social support and disease severity to longitudinal changes in depression and anxiety of outpatients with HF. METHODS:: Patients (N = 108) enrolled in the Psychosocial Factors Outcome Study completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Social Support Questionnaire-6 at study entry and every 6 months for up to 2 years. RESULTS:: At baseline, 30% of the patients were depressed and 42% were anxious. Social support amount contributed to changes in depression (P = .044) but not anxiety (P = .856). Depression increased over time for patients who had lower initial social support amount. Depression did not increase for those with higher initial social support amount. Neither New York Heart Association class nor treatment group (placebo or implantable cardioverter defibrillator) interacted with time to predict depression, which indicates that changes in depression were parallel for patients with New York Heart Association class II and class III HF and for those who received implantable cardioverter defibrillators and those who did not. Assessment of patients with HF should include depression and social support. Interventions to enhance social support among patients with HF who have low social support may help alleviate the development of depression. CONCLUSIONS:: Reducing psychological distress and increasing social support may improve health outcomes among HF outpatients. It is important for studies of HF to include assessment of depression, anxiety, and social support and evaluate their contributions to health outcomes.
HubMed – depression


Purging deleterious mutations in conservation programmes: combining optimal contributions with inbred matings.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Heredity (Edinb). 2013 Jan 16;
de Cara MA, Villanueva B, Toro MA, Fernández J

Conservation programmes aim at minimising the loss of genetic diversity, which allows populations to adapt to potential environmental changes. This can be achieved by calculating how many offspring every individual should contribute to the next generation to minimise global coancestry. However, an undesired consequence of this strategy is that it maintains deleterious mutations, compromising the viability of the population. In order to avoid this, optimal contributions could be combined with inbred matings, to expose and eliminate recessive deleterious mutations by natural selection in a process known as purging. Although some populations that have undergone purging experienced reduced inbreeding depression, this effect is not consistent across species. Whether purging by inbred matings is efficient in conservation programmes depends on the balance between the loss of diversity, the initial decrease in fitness and the reduction in mutational load. Here we perform computer simulations to determine whether managing a population by combining optimal contributions with inbred matings improves its long-term viability while keeping reasonable levels of diversity. We compare the management based on genealogical information with management based on molecular data to calculate coancestries. In the scenarios analysed, inbred matings never led to higher fitness and usually maintained lower diversity than random or minimum coancestry matings. Replacing genealogical with molecular coancestry can maintain a larger genetic diversity but can also lead to a lower fitness. Our results are strongly dependent on the mutational model assumed for the trait under selection, the population size during management and the reproductive rate.Heredity advance online publication, 16 January 2013; doi:10.1038/hdy.2012.119.
HubMed – depression


[Prevalence of chronic pain in Germany : A representative survey of the general population.]

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Schmerz. 2013 Jan 17;
Häuser W, Schmutzer G, Hinz A, Hilbert A, Brähler E

BACKGROUND: There are no up to date data from representative samples of the general German population on the prevalence of debilitating pain and of pain diseases available. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of the German general population including persons ??14 years of age was conducted in 2012 based on face-to-face interviews using standardized questionnaires. Chronic pain was assessed by the widespread pain index (WPI), disability by the subscales physical functioning and role function of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-C30) and psychological distress by the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-4). Chronic pain with associated physical and social impairments was defined by at least one pain site over 3 months in the WPI and at least one response of a moderate or severe impairment in both subscales of the EORTC 30 QLQ-C30. Chronic pain with associated physical, mental and social impairment (pain disease) required in addition a probable depressive and/or anxiety disorder in the PHQ-4. RESULTS: A total of 2,515 out of 4,480 (56.1 %) of contacted persons finished the study of which 32.9 % reported chronic pain, 5.4 % reported chronic pain with associated physical and social impairments and 2.3 % associated physical, mental and social impairments. No participants with local pain (only one pain site) but 24.0 % of participants with widespread pain (6-19 pain sites) met the criteria of a pain disease. CONCLUSIONS: The reports of chronic pain in epidemiological studies do not necessarily imply a suffering (physical, psychological and social impairment) from pain.
HubMed – depression


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