Repeated Short-Term Daily Exercise Ameliorates Oxidative Cerebral Damage and the Resultant Motor Dysfunction After Transient Ischemia in Rats.

Repeated short-term daily exercise ameliorates oxidative cerebral damage and the resultant motor dysfunction after transient ischemia in rats.

J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2013 Jul; 53(1): 8-14
Hamakawa M, Ishida A, Tamakoshi K, Shimada H, Nakashima H, Noguchi T, Toyokuni S, Ishida K

Long-term exercise prior to brain ischemia enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes and leads to a significant reduction in brain damage and neurological deficits in rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. However, it has not been established whether relatively short-term exercise generates similar results following middle cerebral artery occlusion. We aimed to determine whether short-term exercise could reduce oxidative damage and prevent sensori-motor dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to perform daily exercise on a treadmill for 30 min at a speed of 15 m/min for 3 weeks, followed by a 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion. Animals were assessed after middle cerebral artery occlusion for neurological deficits and sensori-motor function. Brain tissues were processed to evaluate infarct volume and oxidative damage. Oxidative stress was assessed using immunohistochemistry for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine. Antioxidant enzymes were evaluated using immunohistochemistry for thioredoxin and activity assay for superoxide dismutase. Exercise for 3 weeks decreased the severity of paralysis and impairment in forelimb motor coordination. Furthermore, exercise had effect on superoxide dismutase and reduced the infarct volume and the number of cells immunopositive for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine. Our results suggest that pre-conditioning treadmill exercise for 3 weeks is useful for ameliorating ischemia-induced brain injury. HubMed – rehab

Very low levels of education and cognitive reserve: A clinicopathologic study.

Neurology. 2013 Jul 19;
Farfel JM, Nitrini R, Suemoto CK, Grinberg LT, Ferretti RE, Leite RE, Tampellini E, Lima L, Farias DS, Neves RC, Rodriguez RD, Menezes PR, Fregni F, Bennett DA, Pasqualucci CA, Jacob Filho W,

We conducted a clinicopathologic study in a large population with very low levels of education to determine whether very few years of education could contribute to cognitive reserve and modify the relation of neuropathologic indices to dementia.In this cross-sectional study, we included 675 individuals 50 years of age or older from the Brazilian Aging Brain Study Group. Cognitive abilities were evaluated through a structured interview with an informant at the time of autopsy, including the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. Neuropathologic examinations were performed using immunohistochemistry and following internationally accepted criteria. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted to determine whether the association between cognitive abilities (measured by CDR sum of boxes) and years of education was independent of sociodemographic variables and neuropathologic indices, including neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, lacunar infarctions, small-vessel disease, and Lewy bodies. In addition, interaction models were used to examine whether education modified the relation between neuropathologic indices and cognition.Mean education was 3.9 ± 3.5 years. Formal education was associated with a lower CDR sum of boxes (? = -0.197; 95% confidence interval -0.343, -0.052; p = 0.008), after adjustment for sociodemographic variables and neuropathologic indices. Furthermore, education modified the relationship of lacunar infarcts with cognitive abilities (p = 0.04).Even a few years of formal education contributes to cognitive reserve. HubMed – rehab

Death, Debility, and Destitution Following Hip Fracture.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Jul 19;
Tajeu GS, Delzell E, Smith W, Arora T, Curtis JR, Saag KG, Morrisey MA, Yun H, Kilgore ML

We examined the effects of hip fracture on mortality, entry into long-term institutional care, and new evidence of poverty. We estimate of the proportion of hip fracture patients who require not just short-term rehabilitation but who become dependent on long-term institutional care, and the risk of becoming newly dependent on Medicaid or eligible for low-income subsidies following hip fracture.We used data from 2005 through 2010 for a random 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries (N = 3.1 million) to conduct a retrospective matched cohort study. We used high-dimensional propensity score matching to compare outcomes for patients who experienced a hip fracture with subjects who did not, but had similar propensity for suffering a hip fracture. We then compared the 1-year risk of death, debility, and destitution between groups.We matched 43,210 hip fracture patients to comparators without a hip fracture. Hip fractures were associated with more than a twofold increase in likelihood of mortality (incidence proportion ratio [IPR] of 2.27, 95% CI, 2.20-2.34), a fourfold increase in likelihood of requiring long-term nursing facility care (IPR, 3.96; 95% CI, 3.77-4.16), and a twofold increase in the probability of entering into low-income status (IPR, 2.14; 95% CI 1.99-2.31) within 1 year following hip fracture compared with subjects without a hip fracture.Hip fracture in elderly patients resulted in increased death, debility, and destitution. Initiatives that lead to improved treatment of osteoporosis could result in a decrease in incidence of fractures, subsequent death, debility, and destitution for older adults. HubMed – rehab

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