Reduced Orbitofrontal Cortical Thickness in Male Adolescents With Internet Addiction.

Reduced orbitofrontal cortical thickness in male adolescents with internet addiction.

Behav Brain Funct. 2013 Mar 12; 9(1): 11
Hong SB, Kim JW, Choi EJ, Kim HH, Suh JE, Kim CD, Klauser P, Whittle S, Y Cel M, Pantelis C, Yi SH

BACKGROUND: The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has consistently been implicated in the pathology of both drug and behavioural addictions. However, no study to date has examined OFC thickness in internet addiction. In the current study, we investigated the existence of differences in cortical thickness of the OFC in adolescents with internet addiction. On the basis of recently proposed theoretical models of addiction, we predicted a reduction of thickness in the OFC of internet addicted individuals. FINDINGS: Participants were 15 male adolescents diagnosed as having internet addiction and 15 male healthy comparison subjects. Brain magnetic resonance images were acquired on a 3T MRI and group differences in cortical thickness were analyzed using FreeSurfer. Our results confirmed that male adolescents with internet addiction have significantly decreased cortical thickness in the right lateral OFC (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This finding supports the view that the OFC alterations in adolescents with internet addiction reflect a shared neurobiological marker of addiction-related disorders in general. HubMed – addiction


Predictors of retention in community-based methadone maintenance treatment program in Pearl River Delta, China.

Harm Reduct J. 2013; 10: 3
Yang F, Lin P, Li Y, He Q, Long Q, Fu X, Luo Y

The aims were to identify predictors of treatment retention in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Pearl River Delta, China.Retrospective longitudinal study. Participants: 6 MMT clinics in rural and urban area were selected. Statistical analysis: Stratified random sampling was employed, and the data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and life table method. Protective or risk factors were explored using Cox’s proportional hazards model. Independent variables were enrolled in univariate analysis and among which significant variables were analyzed by multivariate analysis.A total of 2728 patients were enrolled. The median of the retention duration was 13.63 months, and the cumulative retention rates at 1,2,3 years were 53.0%, 35.0%, 20.0%, respectively. Multivariate Cox analysis showed: age, relationship with family, live on support from family or friends, income, considering treatment cost suitable, considering treatment open time suitable, addiction severity (daily expense for drug), communication with former drug taking peer, living in rural area, daily treatment dosage, sharing needles, re-admission and history of being arrested were predictors for MMT retention.MMT retention rate in Guangdong was low and treatment skills and quality should be improved. Meanwhile, participation of family and society should be encouraged. HubMed – addiction


Age-related differences in working memory deficits during nicotine withdrawal.

Addict Biol. 2013 Mar 18;
Falcone M, Wileyto EP, Ruparel K, Gerraty RT, Laprate L, Detre JA, Gur R, Loughead J, Lerman C

Nicotine withdrawal is associated with subtle working memory deficits that predict subsequent relapse. We examined the neural substrates underlying these processes in treatment-seeking smokers, and explored the moderating influence of age on abstinence-induced alterations in brain activity and performance. Sixty-three smokers participated in two blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging scans while performing a visual N-back task on two separate occasions: smoking as usual and after 24 hours of biochemically confirmed abstinence (order counterbalanced). Abstinence (versus smoking) led to reduced accuracy, slower median correct response time and reduced BOLD signal change in the three a priori regions of interest: medial frontal/cingulate gyrus and right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Significant age?×?session effects were found for BOLD signal change in all three regions, as well as for withdrawal and craving; for all measures, abstinence effects were attenuated in smokers aged ?50 years compared with those <50 years old. These results suggest that abstinence effects on neurocognitive function may be more pronounced for younger smokers, and may indicate a new avenue for research exploring mechanisms underlying age differences in smoking cessation success. HubMed – addiction


Therapeutic vaccines against tobacco addiction.

Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013 Mar; 12(3): 333-42
Fahim RE, Kessler PD, Kalnik MW

Most smokers are aware of the dangers of smoking and want to quit, yet few are successful owing to the highly addictive properties of nicotine. Available smoking cessation tools include pharmacotherapies that act in the CNS and show modest long-term efficacy. Additionally, there are emerging concerns that they may cause adverse neuropsychiatric events. Antinicotine vaccines have been used experimentally as aids to smoking cessation. It is hypothesized that antibody capture of nicotine in the bloodstream would prevent it from crossing the blood-brain barrier and reaching the nicotinic receptors. The advantage of the approach includes the relatively gradual rise of antibody levels, which may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms, and the possible persistence of the antibodies potentially provides long-term protection, possibly preventing relapse. Proof-of-concept studies of at least two vaccine candidates have shown correlations between antinicotine antibody exposure and smoking abstinence. Unfortunately, the only vaccine tested in two large, randomized Phase III trials, 3′-amino-methyl-nicotine r-exoprotein A conjugate vaccine (NicVAX(®), Nabi Biopharmaceuticals, MD, USA), did not demonstrate efficacy. However, despite the lack of efficacy, there is good reason for continued optimism. This review will summarize the current status of the development of nicotine vaccines, discuss possible causes for the mixed results and review future scientific directions. HubMed – addiction


Prospects, promise and problems on the road to effective vaccines and related therapies for substance abuse.

Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013 Mar; 12(3): 323-32
Brimijoin S, Shen X, Orson F, Kosten T

This review addresses potential new treatments for stimulant drugs of abuse, especially cocaine. Clinical trials of vaccines against cocaine and nicotine have been completed with the generally encouraging result that subjects showing high titers of antidrug antibody experience a reduction in drug reward, which may aid in cessation. New vaccine technologies, including gene transfer of highly optimized monoclonal antibodies, are likely to improve such outcomes further. In the special case of cocaine abuse, a metabolic enzyme is emerging as an alternative or added therapeutic intervention, which would also involve gene transfer. Such approaches still require extensive studies of safety and efficacy, but they may eventually contribute to a robust form of in vivo drug interception that greatly reduces the risks of addiction relapse. HubMed – addiction