Recombinant Human Butyrylcholinesterase as a New-Age Bioscavenger Drug: Development of the Expression System.

Recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase as a new-age bioscavenger drug: development of the expression system.

Acta Naturae. 2013 Jan; 5(1): 73-84
Ilyushin DG, Haertley OM, Bobik TV, Shamborant OG, Surina EA, Knorre VD, Masson P, Smirnov IV, Gabibov AG, Ponomarenko NA

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is a serine hydrolase (EC which can be found in most animal tissues. This enzyme has a broad spectrum of efficacy against organophosphorus compounds, which makes it a prime candidate for the role of stoichiometric bioscavenger. Development of a new-age DNA-encoded bioscavenger is a vival task. Several transgenic expression systems of human BChE were developed over the past 20 years; however, none of them has been shown to make economic sense or has been approved for administration to humans. In this study, a CHO-based expression system was redesigned, resulting in a significant increase in the production level of functional recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase as compared to the hitherto existing systems. The recombinant enzyme was characterized with Elman and ELISA methods. HubMed – drug


Efficacy and safety of lenalidomide in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome with chromosome 5q deletion.

Ther Adv Hematol. 2012 Apr; 3(2): 105-16
Duong VH, Komrokji RS, List AF

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with del(5q) is a unique hematopoietic stem cell disease that typically follows an indolent course and demonstrates particular sensitivity to lenalidomide, a second-generation immunomodulatory agent. Early trials demonstrated rapid and durable responses leading to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 2005. Definitive confirmatory evidence from a large phase III trial was recently published. Other recent advances include a better understanding of the pathogenesis of disease including haplodeficiency of several candidate genes, and elucidation of the lenalidomide-specific effect on two phosphatases ultimately leading to p53 degradation in the erythroid progenitors and cell cycle arrest in earlier myeloid progenitors. In this review, we describe the pathogenesis of MDS with del(5q), summarize the major clinical studies establishing the activity of lenalidomide in this population, discuss commonly encountered adverse events, and shed light on practical uses of this agent in the clinic. HubMed – drug


Hepatic histopathology and postoperative outcome after preoperative chemotherapy for Chinese patients with colorectal liver metastases.

World J Gastrointest Surg. 2013 Mar 27; 5(3): 30-6
Lu QY, Zhao AL, Deng W, Li ZW, Shen L

To assess the effects of preoperative treatment on the hepatic histology of non-tumoral liver and the postoperative outcome.One hundred and six patients underwent hepatic resection for colorectal metastases between 1999 and 2009. The surgical specimens were reviewed with established criteria for diagnosis and grading of pathological hepatic injury. The impact of preoperative therapy on liver injury and postoperative outcome was analyzed.Fifty-three patients (50%) received surgery alone, whereas 42 patients (39.6%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 11 (10.4%) patients received preoperative hepatic artery infusion (HAI). Chemotherapy included oxaliplatin-based regimens (31.1%) and irinotecan-based regimens (8.5%). On histopathological analysis, 16 patients (15.1%) had steatosis, 31 (29.2%) had sinusoidal dilation and 20 patients (18.9%) had steatohepatitis. Preoperative oxaliplatin was associated with sinusoidal dilation compared with surgery alone (42.4% vs 20.8%, P = 0.03); however, the perioperative complication rate was not significantly different between the oxaliplatin group and surgery group (27.3% vs 13.2%, P = 0.1). HAI was associated with more steatosis, sinusoidal dilation and steatohepatitis than the surgery group, with higher perioperative morbidity (36.4% vs 13.2%, P = 0.06) and mortality (9.1% vs 0% P = 0.02).Preoperative oxaliplatin was associated with sinusoidal dilation compared with surgery alone. However, the preoperative oxaliplatin had no significant impact on perioperative outcomes. HAI can cause pathological changes and tends to increase perioperative morbidity and mortality. HubMed – drug


Mastabol induced acute cholestasis: A case report.

World J Hepatol. 2013 Mar 27; 5(3): 133-6
Hymel BM, Victor DW, Alvarez L, Shores NJ, Balart LA

A 26-year-old male presented with three weeks of jaundice after the self-initiation of the injectable anabolic steroid, Mastabol [Dromastanolone Di-Propionate (17 beta-Hydroxy-2alpha-methyl-5alpha-androstan-3-one propionate)]. He reported dark urine, light stools, and pruritus. He denied abdominal pain, intravenous drug use, intranasal cocaine, blood transfusions, newly placed tattoos, or sexually transmitted diseases. He used alcohol sparingly. Physical exam revealed jaundice with deep scleral icterus. The liver was palpable 2 cm below the right costal margin with no ascites. The peak bilirubin was 23.6 mg/dL, alkaline phosphatase was 441 units/L, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase were 70 units/L and 117 units/L respectively. A working diagnosis of acute intrahepatic cholestasis was made. Liver biopsy revealed a centrilobular insult with neutrophilic infiltrates and Ito cell hyperplasia consistent with acute drug induced cholestasis. The patient’s clinical symptoms resolved and his liver enzymes, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase normalized. Anabolic steroids with 17 alpha carbon substitutions have been associated with a bland variety of cholestatic injury with little hepatocellular injury. Cholestasis, under these circumstances, may be secondary to the binding of drugs to canalicular membrane transporters, accumulation of toxic bile acids from canalicular pump failure, or genetic defects in canalicular transport proteins. Mastabol is an injectable, 17 beta hydroxyl compound with no alpha alkyl groups at the 17 carbon position. As such, it has been reported to have little potential toxic effects on the liver. This is the first known reported case of Mastabol-induced cholestatic liver injury. It highlights the need for physicians to consider such widely available substances when faced with hepatic injury of unclear etiology. HubMed – drug


Association between low molecular polypeptide 7 single nucleotide polymorphism and response to therapy in hepatitis C virus infection.

World J Hepatol. 2013 Mar 27; 5(3): 97-103
Omran MH, Fotouh BE, Youssef SS, Ibrahim NE, Nabil W, Mahdy el-SM, Shosha WG, El-Awady MK

To investigate the relationship between low molecular polypeptide-7 (LMP-7) gene polymorphism and response to interferon (IFN) therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients.LMP-7 polymorphism at codon 49 with nucleotide substitution from A to C was amplified in 104 chronic HCV patients of genotype 4. The amplicons were digested with restriction endonuclease BsmI and the produced restriction fragment length polymorphism was analyzed. Patients received IFN + regional blood volume therapy for 48 wk and the frequency of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was statistically correlated with treatment response. The exclusion criteria for these patients were stated by the national health program for treating viral hepatitis. Main exclusion criteria included co-infection with hepatitis B virus or schistosomiasis, thyroid dysfunction, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, history of long term drug or alcohol intake and autoimmune hepatitis. Multivariate analyses were done to correlate LMP-7 SNP plus several factors such as age, gender, weight, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and alanine aminotransferase levels, liver activity, fibrosis score and viral load with response to therapy.The data presented in this study clearly demonstrated statistically significant differences between sustained virological response (SVR) (defined as the absence of HCV RNA levels in the patient’s sera at least 6 mo after discontinuation of treatment) and non-response (NR) (where HCV RNA levels in the patient’s sera never become undetectable for 6 mo during or after treatment). Variables were described as odds ratio with 95%CI. The data were considered significant if P values were ? 0.05; highly significant if P < 0.01 and very highly significant if P < 0.001. Current data showed that 91.7% of patients carrying LMP-7 C/C allele were associated with SVR, while the other two genotypes C/A and A/A were associated with NR patients, 83.3% and 64.3% respectively, showing that genotype CC was strongly associated with response to interferon (95%CI: 12.0719-134.6572, P = 0.0001). The majority of parameters recorded in SVR and NR patients included higher values of mean age (P = 0.004), alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.001), AFP (P = 0.001), body weight (P = 0.025), viral load (P = 0.025), higher fibrosis and histological activity index indices among NR vs SVR patients. Also, the multivariate statistical analysis of the different factors of fibrosis score, liver activity grade, genotypes and alleles of LMP-7 gene polymorphism in responders and NRs of HCV patients in this study showed that HCV patients with A allele had a very highly significant association with the NRs, high fibrosis and higher liver activity, while the C allele had a very highly significant association with the responders, low fibrosis and lower liver activity (95%CI: 3.5800-13.2519, P = 0.0001).LMP-7 SNP is a candidate gene that should be considered when designing a mathematical model for predicting response to therapy and disease progression in HCV patients. HubMed – drug