A Study of the Effects of Saliva Stimulation by Nizatidine on Dry Mouth Symptoms of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis.

A study of the effects of saliva stimulation by nizatidine on dry mouth symptoms of primary biliary cirrhosis.

World J Hepatol. 2013 Mar 27; 5(3): 90-6
Kikuchi T, Hirano K, Genda T, Tsuzura H, Sato S, Kanemitsu Y, Narita Y, Iijima K, Ichida T

To elucidate the effect of saliva stimulation by nizatidine on oral symptoms of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) by administering it to PBC cases.From among 73 cases that had been definitively diagnosed as PBC at our hospital by February 2010, we selected 27 cases of PBC, 4 males and 23 females, as subjects. We obtained subjects’ consent after giving them a full explanation of the administration of nizatidine. Nizatidine 150 mg was administered internally twice daily, after morning and evening meals. To observe changes in the quantity of saliva secreted, chewing gum tests were carried out four times: before the initial dose, and after 6 mo, 12 mo and 24 mo of administration. For subjective dry mouth symptoms, a visual analog scale (VAS) method was used to assess their feelings of oral dryness and eating difficulty, five times: before the initial dose, and after 1, 6, 12 and 24 mo of administration in 8 cases. The nutritional condition and the hepatic functional reserve were compared between before and after the nizatidine treatment.The result of a chewing gum test on the subjects before the administration of nizatidine showed that 50% produced less than 10 mL of saliva, i.e., the standard under which cases are considered to have hyposalivation. The results of these tests showed that the quantity of saliva secreted was 10.5 ± 6.8 mL before administration of nizatidine, 10.9 ± 6.0 mL after 6 mo, 10.6 ± 4.9 mL after 12 mo, and 11.8 ± 6.8 mL after 24 mo administration. Thus, there was a slowly increasing trend in the quantity of saliva in the whole group. The percentage of subjects with saliva production above 10 mL was 45.8% after 6 mo administration of nizatidine, that is, only a slight change from before its administration, but it was 64.3% after 12 mo, that is, a significant increase. The saliva secretion by subject patients was examined before the beginning of administration of nizatidine, 12 mo later, and 24 mo later, and Fisher’s combined probability test was used to examine the results for increases in saliva secretion. The analysis yielded P values of 0.51 and 0.53 for 12 mo later and 24 mo later, respectively. Thus, although there was no statistically significant increase, it was confirmed that saliva secretion tended to increase. A VAS method was employed to study the intensities of subjective symptoms of oral dryness and eating difficulty. Almost every case indicated some improvement of subjective oral dryness on the VAS early in the administration, i.e., one month after. We also studied the effects of the administration of nizatidine on nutritional condition, hepatic functional reserve, and long-term prognosis of PBC. No significant improvements in cholinesterase (ChE) level, albumin (Alb) level, or Child-Pugh score were found during the period of observation from the beginning to the end of administration of nizatidine, nor in comparison with the non-administration group. A comparative analysis between before administration and 24 mo later yielded P values of 0.41 for Alb, 0.56 for ChE, and 0.59 for the Child-Pugh scores.It was confirmed that administering nizatidine to cases of PBC with dry mouth increased the secretion of saliva and improved the symptoms. HubMed – eating


Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in certified food-handlers working in food establishments in the City of Nairobi, Kenya.

J Biomed Res. 2012 Mar; 26(2): 84-9
Kamau P, Aloo-Obudho P, Kabiru E, Ombacho K, Langat B, Mucheru O, Ireri L

Most intestinal parasites are cosmopolitan with the highest prevalence in the tropics and subtopics. Rural-to-urban migration rapidly increases the number of food eating places in towns and their environs. Some of these eating estabishments have poor sanitation and are overcrowded, facilitating disease transmission, especially through food-handling. Our investigations in Nairobi, therefore, were set to determine the presence of intestinal parasites in food-handlers with valid medical certificates. Direct and concentrated stool processing techniques were used. Chisquare test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia were observed in certified food-handlers. Significant difference was found in parasite frequency by eating classes and gender (?(2) = 9.49, P = 0.73), (F = 1.495, P = 0.297), but not in parasite occurrence between age brackets (?(2) = 6.99, P = 0.039). The six-month medical certificate validity period may contribute significantly to the presence of intestinal parasites in certified food-handlers. HubMed – eating


The cost-effectiveness of a successful community-based obesity prevention program; The Be Active Eat Well Program.

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Mar 30;
Moodie ML, Herbert JK, de Silva-Sanigorski AM, Mavoa HM, Keating CL, Carter RC, Waters E, Gibbs L, Swinburn BA

Objective: To examine the cost-effectiveness of Be Active Eat Well (BAEW), a large, multi-faceted, community-based capacity-building demonstration program that promoted healthy eating and physical activity for Australian children aged 4-12 years between 2003-2006. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental, longitudinal design was used with anthropometric data collected at baseline (1,001 children – intervention; 1,183 – comparator) and follow-up. A societal perspective was employed, with intervention resource use measured retrospectively based on process evaluation reports, school newsletters, reports and key stakeholder interviews, and valued in 2006 Australian dollars (AUD). Outcomes were measured as Body Mass Index (BMI) units saved and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) averted over the predicted cohort lifetime, and reported as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (with 95% uncertainty intervals). Results: The intervention cost AUD0.34M ($ 0.31M; $ 0.38M) annually, and resulted in savings of 547 (-104; 1,209) BMI units and 10.2 (-0.19; 21.6) DALYs. This translated to modest cost offsets of AUD27 311 (-$ 1,803; $ 58 242) and a net cost per DALY saved of AUD29 798 (dominated; $ 0.26M). Conclusion: BAEW was affordable and cost-effective, and generated substantial spin-offs in terms of activity beyond funding levels. Elements fundamental to its success and any potential cost efficiencies associated with scaling-up now require identification. HubMed – eating


Intrinsic Connectivity Networks Within Cerebellum and Beyond in Eating Disorders.

Cerebellum. 2013 Apr 4;
Amianto F, D’Agata F, Lavagnino L, Caroppo P, Abbate-Daga G, Righi D, Scarone S, Bergui M, Mortara P, Fassino S

Cerebellum seems to have a role both in feeding behavior and emotion regulation; therefore, it is a region that warrants further neuroimaging studies in eating disorders, severe conditions that determine a significant impairment in the physical and psychological domain. The aim of this study was to examine the cerebellum intrinsic connectivity during functional magnetic resonance imaging resting state in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and healthy controls (CN). Resting state brain activity was decomposed into intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) using group spatial independent component analysis on the resting blood oxygenation level dependent time courses of 12 AN, 12 BN, and 10 CN. We extracted the cerebellar ICN and compared it between groups. Intrinsic connectivity within the cerebellar network showed some common alterations in eating disordered compared to healthy subjects (e.g., a greater connectivity with insulae, vermis, and paravermis and a lesser connectivity with parietal lobe); AN and BN patients were characterized by some peculiar alterations in connectivity patterns (e.g., greater connectivity with the insulae in AN compared to BN, greater connectivity with anterior cingulate cortex in BN compared to AN). Our data are consistent with the presence of different alterations in the cerebellar network in AN and BN patients that could be related to psychopathologic dimensions of eating disorders. HubMed – eating