Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Depression and Its Theoretical Perspectives.

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Depression and Its Theoretical Perspectives.

Psychiatr Q. 2013 Jun 26;
Kim M

The purpose of this review is to look at racial/ethnic disparities in the diagnosis of depression and its treatment and to explain the dynamics and causes of these racial/ethnic disparities in depression by looking at several theories, such as perceived racism, cultural competency, and other theories. Perceived racism is that the perceptions of an environmental stimulus as being racist affects the coping responses of ethnic/racial minorities, which alters psychological and physiological stress responses, and finally affects health outcomes negatively. A lower level of cultural competence can lead to health disparities. In addition, lower socioeconomic status and health care providers’ beliefs and behaviors about patients’ race/ethnicity and class can affect depressive symptoms as well as diagnosis and treatment. In order to reduce these racial/ethnic disparities in depression, diverse interventions should be developed to improve depression outcomes for ethnic minority populations based on these theoretical perspectives. HubMed – depression


Depression in Peri- and Postmenopausal Women: Prevalence, Pathophysiology and Pharmacological Management.

Drugs Aging. 2013 Jun 26;
Soares CN

Epidemiologic and clinic data have unequivocally supported the notion that women experience more psychiatric problems at some point in their lives compared with men, particularly mood and anxiety symptoms and sleep problems. It is also known that, for some women, such increased risk might be associated with reproductive cycle events such as the postpartum period or the menopausal transition. These periods are not only marked by substantial hormone variations but also quite often accompanied by stressful events and changes in personal, family and professional responsibilities. The complexity of these reproductive-related ‘windows of vulnerability’ poses a challenge to physicians and other professionals dedicated to women’s health across the lifespan. The menopausal transition and early postmenopausal years constitute a characteristic example; during this period in life, dynamic changes in sex hormones and reproductive function co-occur with modifications in metabolism, sexuality, lifestyle behaviours and overall health, sometimes affecting a woman’s quality of life and overall functioning. For most women, however, this transition has little or no significant impact on their mental wellness. A prior depressive episode-particularly if related to reproductive events-is the strongest predictor of mood symptoms or depression during menopausal years. Also, the presence and severity of vasomotor symptoms and other health-related issues appear to modulate the risk for depression in midlife women. Mechanistically, estrogen plays an important modulatory role in mood and cognitive regulation, hence the effects noted when midlife women are exposed to significant estrogen fluctuations or to estrogen-based therapies (use or withdrawal). Transdermal estradiol, as well as serotonergic and noradrenergic antidepressants, have shown efficacy in the management of depression in this population. Other evidence-based treatment options (hormonal, pharmacological, behavioural) are available to clinicians and health professionals who care for this population. HubMed – depression


Highly Efficient Visible Light-Induced O2 Generation by Self-Assembled Nanohybrids of Inorganic Nanosheets and Polyoxometalate Nanoclusters.

Sci Rep. 2013 Jun 26; 3: 2080
Gunjakar JL, Kim TW, Kim IY, Lee JM, Hwang SJ

Unusually high photocatalytic activity of visible light-induced O2 generation can be achieved by electrostatically-derived self-assembly between exfoliated Zn-Cr-LDH 2D nanosheets and POM 0D nanoclusters (W7O24(6-) and V10O28(6-)) acting as an electron acceptor. This self-assembly can provide a high flexibility in the control of the chemical composition and pore structure of the resulting LDH-based nanohybrids. The hybridization with POM nanoclusters remarkably enhances the photocatalytic activity of the pristine Zn-Cr-LDH, which is attributable to the formation of porous structure and depression of charge recombination. Of prime interest is that the excellent photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared Zn-Cr-LDH-POM nanohybrid for visible light-induced O2 generation can be further enhanced by calcination at 200 °C, leading to the very high apparent quantum yield of ?75.2% at 420?nm. The present findings clearly demonstrate that the self-assembly of LDH-POM is fairly powerful in synthesizing novel LDH-based porous nanohybrid photocatalyst for visible light-induced O2 generation. HubMed – depression


Serum pyridoxal concentrations and depressive symptoms among Japanese adults: results from a prospective study.

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jun 26;
Nanri A, Pham NM, Kurotani K, Kume A, Kuwahara K, Sato M, Hayabuchi H, Mizoue T

Background/objectives:Vitamin B6 is suggested to have a protective role against depression. However, the association between vitamin B6 intake and depression remains inconclusive, and few studies have examined the relationship between circulating vitamin B6 concentrations and depressive symptoms. Here, we investigated the cross-sectional and prospective associations between serum pyridoxal concentrations and depressive symptoms among Japanese workers.Subjects/methods:Participants were 422 municipal employees (aged 21-67 years) who participated in a baseline survey in 2006 for cross-sectional analysis, and 210 subjects without depressive symptoms at baseline (2006) who completed both baseline and follow-up (2009) surveys for prospective analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio of depressive symptoms (CES-D scale of ?19) according to tertile of serum pyridoxal with adjustment for potential confounding variables.Results:In the cross-sectional analysis, serum pyridoxal concentrations were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of depressive symptoms (P for trend=0.03); the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of depressive symptoms for the highest tertile of pyridoxal was 0.54 (95% confidence interval 0.30-0.96) compared with the lowest tertile. In longitudinal analyses, higher serum pyridoxal concentrations at baseline were associated with a trend toward reduced depressive symptoms after 3 years; the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of depressive symptoms for the highest versus the lowest tertile of pyridoxal concentration was 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.13-2.32).Conclusions:A higher vitamin B6 status may be associated with a decreased risk of depressive symptoms in Japanese.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 26 June 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.115. HubMed – depression


Factors Associated With Survey Response in Hand Surgery Research.

Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2013 Jun 26;
Bot AG, Anderson JA, Neuhaus V, Ring D

A low response rate is believed to decrease the validity of survey studies. Factors associated with nonresponse to surveys are poorly characterized in orthopaedic research.This study addressed whether (1) psychologic factors; (2) demographics; (3) illness-related factors; and (4) pain are predictors of a lower likelihood of a patient returning a mailed survey.One hundred four adult, new or return patients completed questionnaires including the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression scale, Short Health Anxiety Index, demographics, and a pain scale (0-10) during a routine visit to a hand and upper extremity surgeon. Of these patients, 38% had undergone surgery and the remainder was seen for various other conditions. Six months after their visit, patients were mailed the DASH questionnaire and a scale to rate their satisfaction with the visit (0-10). Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were used to determine risk factors for being a nonresponder to the followup of this study. The cohort consisted of 57 women and 47 men with a mean age of 51 years with various diagnoses. Thirty-five patients (34%) returned the questionnaire. Responders were satisfied with their visit (mean satisfaction, 8.7) and had a DASH score of 9.6.Compared with patients who returned the questionnaires, nonresponders had higher pain catastrophizing scores, were younger, more frequently male, and had more pain at enrollment. In logistic regression, male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.6), pain (OR, 1.3), and younger age (OR, 1.03) were associated with not returning the questionnaire.Survey studies should be interpreted in light of the fact that patients who do not return questionnaires in a hand surgery practice differ from patients who do return them. Hand surgery studies that rely on questionnaire evaluation remote from study enrollment should include tactics to improve the response of younger, male patients with more pain.Level II, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. HubMed – depression