Pakistan’s Drug Problem.

Pakistan’s drug problem.

Lancet. 2013 Jun 22; 381(9884): 2153-4
Yaqub F

HubMed – drug


Effects of propofol on damage of rat intestinal epithelial cells induced by heat stress and lipopolysaccharides.

Braz J Med Biol Res. 2013 Jun 25;
Tang J, Jiang Y, Tang Y, Chen B, Sun X, Su L, Liu Z

Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries. HubMed – drug


Decline in adolescent treatment admissions for methamphetamine use in Cape Town.

S Afr Med J. 2013; 103(7): 478-480
Pluddemann A, Dada S, Parry C

Background and objectives. The purpose of this report is to describe the changing trends in adolescent treatment admissions for methamphetamine in Cape Town, and to discuss possible implications.Method. Data were collected on admissions for drug abuse treatment through a regular monitoring system involving drug treatment centres and programmes in Cape Town, every 6 months as part of the South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use (SACENDU). A one-page form was completed by treatment centre personnel for each patient to collect demographic and substance abuse data.Results. The results indicate that between 2004 and 2006, a significant increase in the proportion of adolescent treatment admissions for methamphetamine abuse occurred, while a significant decrease occurred between 2006 and 2011.Conclusions. The initial increase in adolescent treatment admissions for methamphetamine abuse from 2004 to 2006, and subsequent decrease between 2006 and 2011, may suggest a change in methamphetamine abuse patterns among adolescents in Cape Town. HubMed – drug


Pharmacokinetic variations of tetramethylpyrazine phosphate after oral administration in hepatic precancerous mice and its hepatoprotective effects.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2013 Jun 26;
Feng L, Mao W, Zhang J, Liu X, Jiao Y, Zhao X, Wang X, Zhang D, Cai D, Wang Y

Abstract Context: Pharmacokinetics of drug may be altered by abnormal physiological functions in illness, which will affect its pharmacodynamic efficacy in turn. Objective: To assess the preventive effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMPZ) phosphate on hepatocarcinogenesis and its pharmacokinetic differentiations in model mice. Methods: Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was adopted to induce hepatic precancerous model in mice through intraperitoneal injection, and prevention efficacy of TMPZ at a dose of 162?mg/kg was examined by liver histological analysis and activities of serum marker enzymes. Pharmacokinetic variations of TMPZ between control and model mice were measured for single oral administration. Results: DEN initiation led to a remarkable increase of serum marker enzymes, and abnormality such as bile canaliculi hyperplasia and presence of tumor cells were observed in liver histopathological examination in model mice, while the control ones revealed normal architecture. Oral treatment of TMPZ resulted in a marked reduction in serum marker enzymes and improvement in liver histopathology compared with model ones. In pharmacokinetic study, values of AUC and Tmax of TMPZ became significantly greater with increase of doses in both control and model mice, which elucidated the absorption was enhanced and delayed; meanwhile, its elimination was not affected markedly. When the mice were treated at same dose, the adsorption of TMPZ in model mice was greatly improved than that in control ones, while Tmax and MRT had no significant difference. Conclusion: TMPZ was partly effective to protect liver from carcinogenesis initiated by DEN, and hepatic insufficiency could change its pharmacokinetics. HubMed – drug