Racial/ethnic Disparities in Association Between Dietary Quality and Incident Diabetes in Postmenopausal Women in the United States: The Women’s Health Initiative 1993-2005.

Racial/ethnic disparities in association between dietary quality and incident diabetes in postmenopausal women in the United States: the Women’s Health Initiative 1993-2005.

Ethn Health. 2013 May 22;
Qiao Y, Tinker L, Olendzki BC, Hébert JR, Balasubramanian R, Rosal MC, Hingle M, Song Y, Schneider KL, Liu S, Sims S, Ockene JK, Sepavich DM, Shikany JM, Persuitte G, Ma Y

Objective. To examine the association of dietary quality and risk of incident diabetes overall and by race/ethnicity among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). Research methods and procedures. The WHI recruited 161,808 postmenopausal women between 1993 and 1998, and followed them until 2005. Incident diabetes was determined annually over an average of 7.6 years from enrollment. At baseline, all participants completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary quality was assessed by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), calculated from the baseline FFQ responses. Results. There were 10,307 incident cases of self-reported treated diabetes over 1,172,761 person-years of follow-up. Most participants did not meet the AHEI dietary goals; that is, only 0.1% of women met or exceeded the recommended consumption of vegetables, and few (17.3%) met or exceeded the recommended level for total fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, women in the highest quintile of the AHEI score were 24% less likely to develop diabetes relative to women in the lowest quintile of AHEI [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.76 (95% CI: 0.70-0.82)]. This association was observed in Whites [HR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.68-0.82)] and Hispanics [HR = 0.68 (95% CI: 0.46-0.99)], but not in Blacks [HR = 0.85 (95% CI: 0.69-1.05)] or Asians [HR = 0.88 (95% CI: 0.57-1.38)]. Conclusion. These findings support a protective role of healthful eating choices in reducing the risk of developing diabetes, after adjusting for other lifestyle factors, in White and Hispanic postmenopausal women. Future studies are needed to investigate the relationship between dietary quality and risk of diabetes among Blacks and Asians in relationship to other lifestyle factors. HubMed – eating


Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May 22;
Verhoef SP, Camps SG, Gonnissen HK, Westerterp KR, Westerterp-Plantenga MS

BACKGROUND: An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. DESIGN: A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke’s questionnaire), and sleep (estimate by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. RESULTS: The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (?7 h) and average (>7 to <9 h) sleepers increased their sleep duration, whereas sleep duration in long sleepers (?9 h) did not change significantly during weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508. HubMed – eating


Improvement of fundamental movement skills through support and mentorship of class room teachers.

Obes Res Clin Pract. 2013 May/June; 7(3): e230-e234
Mitchell B, McLennan S, Latimer K, Graham D, Gilmore J, Rush E

Summary: Project Energize, a multicomponent through-school programme aims to improve the overall health and reducing weight gain of Waikato primary school children by increasing their physical activity and encouraging healthy eating. The aim of this report is to describe the efficacy of one intervention that provided classroom teachers with tools for improving fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency in years 0-8 school children. In 2008 the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) was used to measure the FMS proficiency of children from 11 schools and 41 classes; before (n = 701) and after (n = 598) the teacher support was provided. Children were identified only by class years. At baseline less than half of the children exhibited proficiency in kicking (21%), throwing (31%) and striking (40%) while most children were able to run (84.6%) and slide (78.0%). All skills were substantially improved (P < 0.001) after the intervention with the biggest changes in kicking, throwing and striking; 49.8%, 63.5% and 76.3% proficient. At baseline children in years 0-3 from higher decile schools performed better than lower decile schools and after intervention this gap was reduced or removed. After receiving tailored FMS physical education classes led by the teacher, younger children were more competent than the older children were at baseline. The large, positive effects of the intervention have implications for long term physical activity participation and fitness with subsequent health benefits. The school-based FMS teacher support intervention by Team Energize is an effective way to improve outcomes for children. HubMed – eating