Quality of Life Impairment and the Attitudinal and Behavioral Features of Eating Disorders.

Quality of life impairment and the attitudinal and behavioral features of eating disorders.

J Nerv Ment Dis. 2013 Jul; 201(7): 592-7
Latner JD, Mond JM, Vallance JK, Gleaves DH, Buckett G

We examined the relative contribution of different forms of eating disorder (ED) pathology to impairment in mental and physical health-related quality of life (QOL) in women with a wide range of ED symptoms. Female participants from an outpatient ED clinic (n = 53) and the local community (n = 214) completed measures of ED features and mental and physical health-related QOL. Across the sample, ED features were significantly associated with most mental and physical domains of QOL. In multiple regression analyses controlling for age and body mass index, ED features significantly predicted impairment in mental and physical QOL. Extreme shape and weight concern significantly and independently predicted most QOL subscales (? range = 0.19-0.44). The prominent contribution of shape and weight concern to both mental and physical QOL impairment underlines the importance of addressing body dissatisfaction in the treatment and prevention of EDs. HubMed – eating


Small molecule drug screening in Drosophila identifies the 5HT2A receptor as a feeding modulation target.

Sci Rep. 2013 Jul 2; 3: srep02120
Gasque G, Conway S, Huang J, Rao Y, Vosshall LB

Dysregulation of eating behavior can lead to obesity, which affects 10% of the adult population worldwide and accounts for nearly 3 million deaths every year. Despite this burden on society, we currently lack effective pharmacological treatment options to regulate appetite. We used Drosophila melanogaster larvae to develop a high-throughput whole organism screen for drugs that modulate food intake. In a screen of 3630 small molecules, we identified the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) receptor antagonist metitepine as a potent anorectic drug. Using cell-based assays we show that metitepine is an antagonist of all five Drosophila 5-HT receptors. We screened fly mutants for each of these receptors and found that serotonin receptor 5-HT2A is the sole molecular target for feeding inhibition by metitepine. These results highlight the conservation of molecular mechanisms controlling appetite and provide a method for unbiased whole-organism drug screens to identify novel drugs and molecular pathways modulating food intake. HubMed – eating


Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids: A Randomized Trial of a Pediatric Primary Care Based Obesity Prevention Intervention for At-Risk 5-10 Year Olds.

Contemp Clin Trials. 2013 Jun 28;
Sherwood NE, Levy RL, Langer SL, Senso MM, Crain AL, Hayes MG, Anderson JD, Seburg EM, Jeffery RW

Pediatric primary care is an important setting in which to address obesity prevention, yet relatively few interventions have been evaluated and even fewer have been shown to be effective. The development and evaluation of cost-effective approaches to obesity prevention that leverage opportunities of direct access to families in the pediatric primary care setting, overcome barriers to implementation in busy practice settings, and facilitate sustained involvement of parents is an important public health priority. The goal of the Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids (HHHK 5-10) randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a relatively low-cost primary care-based obesity prevention intervention aimed at 5 to 10 year old children who are at risk for obesity. Four hundred twenty one parent/child dyads were recruited and randomized to either the obesity prevention arm or a contact control condition that focuses on safety and injury prevention. The HHHK 5-10 obesity prevention intervention combines brief counseling with a pediatric primary care provider during routine well-child visits and follow-up telephone coaching that supports parents in making home environmental changes to support healthful eating, activity patterns, and body weight. The contact control condition combines the same provider counseling with telephone coaching focused on safety and injury prevention messages. This manuscript describes the study design and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the HHHK 5-10 trial. HubMed – eating


Development and Validation of a predictive model of acute glucose response to exercise in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2013 Jul 1; 5(1): 33
Gibson BS, Colberg SR, Poirier P, Vancea DM, Jones J, Marcus R

Our purpose was to develop and test a predictive model of the acute glucose response to exercise in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Design and Methods: Data from three previous exercise studies (56 subjects, 488 exercise sessions) were combined and used as a development dataset. A mixed-effects Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator (LASSO) was used to select predictors among 12 potential predictors. Tests of the relative importance of each predictor were conducted using the Lindemann Merenda and Gold (LMG) algorithm. Model structure was tested using likelihood ratio tests. Model accuracy in the development dataset was assessed by leave-one-out cross-validation.Prospectively captured data (47 individuals, 436 sessions) was used as a test dataset. Model accuracy was calculated as the percentage of predictions within measurement error. Overall model utility was assessed as the number of subjects with <=1 model error after the third exercise session. Model accuracy across individuals was assessed graphically. In a post-hoc analysis, a mixed-effects logistic regression tested the association of individuals' attributes with model error.Minutes since eating, a non-linear transformation of minutes since eating, post-prandial state, hemoglobin A1c, sulfonylurea status, age, and exercise session number were identified as novel predictors. Minutes since eating, its transformations, and hemoglobin A1c combined to account for 19.6% of the variance in glucose response. Sulfonylurea status, age, and exercise session each accounted for <1.0% of the variance.In the development dataset, a model with random slopes for pre-exercise glucose improved fit over a model with random intercepts only (likelihood ratio 34.5, p < 0.001). Cross-validated model accuracy was 83.3%.In the test dataset, overall accuracy was 80.2%. The model was more accurate in pre-prandial than postprandial exercise (83.6% vs. 74.5% accuracy respectively). 31/47 subjects had <=1 model error after the third exercise session. Model error varied across individuals and was weakly associated with within-subject variability in pre-exercise glucose (Odds ratio 1.49, 95% Confidence interval 1.23-1.75).The preliminary development and test of a predictive model of acute glucose response to exercise is presented. Further work to improve this model is discussed. HubMed – eating