Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents With ASD Without Mental Retardation.

Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD Without Mental Retardation.

J Autism Dev Disord. 2013 Mar 8;
Caamaño M, Boada L, Merchán-Naranjo J, Moreno C, Llorente C, Moreno D, Arango C, Parellada M

This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls (mean age 12.52 ± 2.86 years). Significant differences were found between patients with ASD and controls for the domains of: depressive disorder, anxiety separation disorder, agoraphobia and specific phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In patients without a comorbid disorder, we found a profile of subclinical disturbances that suggest high risk for comorbid psychiatric conditions derived from the presence of subthreshold symptomatology. HubMed – depression


Trajectories of Diurnal Cortisol in Mothers of Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Relations to Health and Mental Health.

J Autism Dev Disord. 2013 Mar 7;
Dykens EM, Lambert W

This study used a stress biomarker, diurnal cortisol, to identify how elevated stress in mothers of children and adults with autism and other disabilities relates to their health and mental health. Based on semi-parametric, group-based trajectory analysis of 91 mothers, two distinctive cortisol trajectories emerged: blunted (63 %) or steep (37 %). Mothers in the blunted (vs. steep) trajectory had higher stress levels, lower health ratings, and 89 % of mothers of children with autism, and 53 % with other disabilities, belonged to this trajectory. Atypical cortisol awakening responses and evening rises were differentially associated with anxiety, depression, health problems and employment status. Stress-reducing interventions are needed for parents of children with autism and other disabilities that include biomarkers as indices of risk or treatment outcome. HubMed – depression


Communication activity in stroke patients with aphasia.

J Rehabil Med. 2013 Mar 6;
Mazaux JM, Lagadec T, de Sèze MP, Zongo D, Asselineau J, Douce E, Trias J, Delair MF, Darrigrand B

Objective: To study communication disability in stroke patients with aphasia. Patients and methods: Prospective, multicentric cohort study of patients with aphasia, consecutively included after a first stroke, and examined 1 year later at home. Assessment included a stroke severity scale, the Barthel Index, the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, a communication questionnaire, and the Aphasia Depression Rating Scale. Results: A total of 164 patients were included. Among the 100 survivors assessed at follow-up, 24% had severe aphasia, 12% moderate aphasia and 64% mild aphasia according to the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination severity score. Patients mainly reported difficulties in conversation with strangers and/or on abstract topics, using a phone, reading and writing administrative documents, dealing with money and outdoor communication activities. Communication was strongly related to aphasia severity. Age, gender, education level, residence status and type of stroke had no influence on communication activity. On multivariate analysis, severity of stroke and severity of aphasia on inclusion were found to account for 58% of variance and were independent predictors of the communication questionnaire score at follow-up. Conclusion: Documenting the most impaired communication skills may help to set priority goals for speech and language therapy in aphasia. HubMed – depression


Mental Health Disorders Among Caregivers of Preschool Children in the Asenze Study in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Matern Child Health J. 2013 Mar 7;
Chhagan MK, Mellins CA, Kauchali S, Craib MH, Taylor M, Kvalsvig JD, Davidson LL

Given the existing evidence linking parental depression with infant and early child development, our aim was to describe the burden of mental health disorders among caregivers of young children aged 4-6 years living in an environment of poverty and high HIV seroprevalence. We analyzed baseline data from an epidemiologic study of the health and psychosocial needs of preschool-aged children. Primary caregivers of index children recruited from a household survey were screened for common mental disorders using the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ). Sociodemographic, HIV and general health surveys were also conducted. Many caregivers (449/1,434; 31.3 %) screened positive for at least one psychiatric disorder on the CDQ, with post-traumatic-stress-disorder being the most common. Caregivers who screened positive for any disorder were more likely to be older, to have no individual sources of income and to have less formal education. Presence of a disorder was also significantly associated with lower employment levels within the household and death of a young child within the household. Known HIV-infected caregivers were more likely to have any mood disorder than caregivers who previously tested negative. The data support the need for mental health treatment interventions in South Africa, particularly interventions directed at PTSD and depression, and that take into account the high burden of poverty, HIV and childhood mortality. Given the limited formal mental health structure in South Africa to address these highly prevalent disorders; community-based mental health supports, available through decentralized health systems many be critical to delivering accessible interventions. HubMed – depression