Prohibited Methodes and Substances Abuse in Iranian Fitness Athletes and Its Relation to Cognitive Factors.

Prohibited methodes and substances abuse in Iranian fitness athletes and its relation to cognitive factors.

Br J Sports Med. 2013 Jul; 47(10): e3
Same-Siahkalroodi L, Golshanraz A, Poor-Kazemi L

We have studied prohibited methods and substances in athletes of fitness at 2011-2012. This study aimed to determine the relations between cognitive variables (self-efficacy, locus of Control, and dysfunctional attitudes) and psychological factors towards prohibited methods and substances in fitness.300 subjects investigated that comprised a case group of drug abuser and a control group. Each group contained male between 15 to 25 years. Participants were matched, based on salient demographics including age, sex, educational level and social class. The sampling method was simple random from various fitness clubs of Tehran, Iran. They were then studied by self-efficacy questionnaire, locus of control scale, dysfunctional attitude scale, and general health questionnaire. Hypotheses tested by variance analysis and Tukey’s test. A structural equation model was developed based on the strength of relationships between these outcome measures.Our findings showed that athletes abusing prohibited methods and substances had a lower self-efficacy, more dysfunctional attitudes, and exhibited external locus of control rather than control groups. They were also more sensitive to psychological morbidity. Most of relations were statistically significant.In general, the possible reasons toward doping including: Increased energy levels.(1) Increase the visual beauty.(2) Develop a positive self-concept.(3) Building self-confidence.(4) Develop a psychological balance.(5) The role of coach(6). In this situation, abusing prohibited methods and substances may offer to the athlete a quick solution for coping with the extant pressure. Our findings were in accordance with the theoretical basis of cognitive psychology. More than 85% of all the athletes of fitness included in our study do rely on increased physical energy. HubMed – drug


Assessment of AACE/ACE Recommendations for Initial Dual Antihyperglycemic Therapy Using the Fixed-Dose Combination of Sitagliptin and Metformin Versus Metformin.

Endocr Pract. 2013 Jun 11; 1-22
Engel SS, Seck TL, Golm GT, Meehan AG, Kaufman KD, Goldstein BJ

Objective: The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology (AACE/ACE) diabetes algorithm recommends a stratified approach to initial therapy to achieve an HbA1c goal of ?6.5% in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who have inadequate glycemic control. Data from a double-blind study in drug-naïve T2DM patients comparing initial monotherapy with metformin (MET) with initial dual therapy with a fixed-dose combination of sitagliptin and MET (SITA/MET FDC) was used to determine AACE/ACE HbA1c goal attainment in these treatment groups.Methods: 1250 patients (mean baseline HbA1c =9.9%) were randomized 1:1 to SITA/MET FDC 50/500 mg b.i.d. or MET 500 mg b.i.d. for 18 weeks. SITA/MET FDC and MET were up-titrated over 4 weeks to 50/1000 mg b.i.d. and 1000 mg b.i.d., respectively.Results: At Week 18, a higher percentage of patients receiving SITA/MET FDC had HbA1c levels ?6.5% and <7% than those receiving MET alone within each of the three AACE/ACE HbA1c categories (6.5%-7.5%, >7.5%-9.0%, and >9.0%). Of patients with a baseline HbA1c >7.5%-9.0% who initiated SITA/MET FDC, 48.6% achieved an HbA1c ?6.5% at Week 18 compared with 23.1% of patients who initiated MET monotherapy (p<0.001). In patients with a baseline HbA1c >9.0%, 24.0% on SITA/MET FDC achieved an HbA1c ?6.5% compared with 12.8% on MET alone (p<0.001).Conclusion: In T2DM patients with a baseline HbA1c >7.5%-9.0%, substantially more achieved the HbA1c goal of ?6.5% with initial dual therapy (SITA/MET FDC) than with initial monotherapy (MET), in agreement with the AACE/ACE diabetes algorithm. HubMed – drug


Recurrent Neutropenia Due to Dopamine Agonists in a Patient with Microprolactinoma.

Endocr Pract. 2013 Jun 11; 1-7
Butt MI, Waheed N

Objective: The objective of our case report is to increase the awareness of neutropenia as a rare but potentially serious adverse outcome of commonly used dopamine agonists for the treatment of prolactinomasMethods: Review of clinical history, diagnosis, investigations and drug treatment of our patientResults: Neutropenia was recurrent after changing to various different dopamine agonists necessitating surgical treatment of prolactinomaConclusion: This case serves a reminder of this adverse drug reaction. Considering the significant impact and potentially a life threatening outcome, we advocate routine monitoring of full blood count prior to and during the treatment with dopamine agonists. HubMed – drug