Prevalence of Obesity Among Military Personnel in Saudi Arabia and Associated Risk Factors.

Prevalence of obesity among military personnel in Saudi Arabia and associated risk factors.

Saudi Med J. 2013 Apr; 34(4): 401-7
Bin Horaib G, Al-Khashan HI, Mishriky AM, Selim MA, Alnowaiser N, Binsaeed AA, Alawad AD, Al-Asmari AK, Alqumaizi K

To measure the prevalence of obesity among military personnel in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and to identify its risk factors.This nationwide cross-sectional study covered all 5 military regions of KSA. It included a multistage stratified random sample of 10,500 active military personnel. The World Health Organization STEP wise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance (STEPS) was used in the design of the data collection tool. The project lasted from January 2009 to February 2011.The response rate was 97.4%; 40.9% of the participants were overweight, 29% obese, and 42.4% had central obesity. Multivariate analysis revealed age, education years, and family history of diabetes or hypertension as statistically significant positive predictors of body mass index, while higher military rank, smoking, eating fruits more than twice per week, and heavy physical activities were negative predictors.Obesity is a major health problem among military personnel in this survey especially among soldiers, and is associated with unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits. Prompt action must be taken by the military medical services department in terms of intervention programs primarily directed to soldiers and overweight personnel to control obesity and mitigate its consequences. Review of the anthropometric standards for recruitment, continuation, and promotion in military service is recommended. HubMed – eating


Nutrient intake and dietary patterns of relevance to dental health of 12-year-old Libyan children.

Public Health Nutr. 2013 Apr 3; 1-7
Huew R, Maguire A, Waterhouse P, Moynihan P

OBJECTIVE: There are few data on the dietary intake of children in Libya, and none on free sugars intake. The present study aimed to report the intake of macronutrients and eating habits of relevance to dental health in a group of Libyan schoolchildren and to investigate any gender differences for these variables. DESIGN: Dietary information was obtained from a randomly selected sample using an estimated 3 d food diary. Dietary data were coded using food composition tables and entered into a Microsoft® Access database. Intakes of energy, macronutrients, sugars and the amount of acidic items consumed were determined using purpose-written programs. SETTING: Benghazi, Libya. SUBJECTS: Schoolchildren aged 12 years. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty children (ninety-two boys and eighty-eight girls) completed the study. Their mean age was 12·3 (sd 0·29) years. The average daily energy intake was 7·01 (sd 1·54) MJ/d. The percentage contributions to energy intake from protein, fat and carbohydrate were 16 %, 30 % and 54 %, respectively. Total sugars contributed 20·4 % of the daily energy intake, and free sugars 12·6 %. The median daily intake of acidic items was 203 g/d, and of acidic drinks was 146 g/d. There were no statistically significant differences in nutrient intakes between genders. Intake of acidic items was higher in girls (P < 0·001). CONCLUSIONS: The contribution to energy intake from macronutrients was in accordance with global nutrition guidelines. The acidic drinks intake was low compared with other populations, while free sugars intake was above the recommended threshold of 10 % of energy intake. HubMed – eating


Accounting for variability among individual pigs in deterministic growth models.

Animal. 2013 Apr 4; 1-9
Vautier B, Quiniou N, van Milgen J, Brossard L

Inclusion of variation in deterministic nutritional models for growth by repeating simulations using different sets of parameters has been performed in literature without or with only hypothetic consideration of the covariance structure among parameters. However, a description of the structure of links among parameters describing individuals is required to generate realistic sets of parameters. In this study, the mean and covariance structure of model parameters describing feed intake and growth were analyzed from 10 batches of crossbred gilts and barrows. Data were obtained from different crossbreeds, originating from Large White × Landrace sows and nine sire lines. Pigs were group-housed (12 pigs/pen) and performance testing was carried out from 70 days of age to ?110 kg BW. Daily feed intake (DFI) was recorded using automatic feeding stations and BW was measured at least every 3 weeks. A growth model was used to characterize individual pigs based on the observed DFI and BW. In this model, a Gompertz function was used to describe protein deposition and the resulting BW gain. A gamma function (expressing DFI as multiples of maintenance) was used to express the relationship between DFI and BW. Each pig was characterized through a set of five parameters: BW70 (BW at 70 days of age), BGompertz (a precocity parameter) PDm (mean protein deposition rate) and DFI50 and DFI100 (DFI at 50 and 100 kg BW, respectively). The data set included profiles for 1288 pigs for which no eating or growth disorders were observed (e.g. because of disease). All parameters were affected by sex (except for BW70) and batch, but not by the crossbreed (except for PDm). An interaction between sex and crossbreed was observed for PDm (P < 0.01) and DFI100 (P = 0.05). Different covariance matrices were computed according to the batch, sex, crossbreed, or their combinations, and the similarity of matrices was evaluated using the Flury hierarchy. As covariance matrices were all different, the unit of covariance (subpopulation) corresponded to the combination of batch, sex and crossbreed. Two generic covariance matrices were compared afterwards, with (median matrix) or without (raw matrix) taking into account the size of subpopulations. The most accurate estimation of observed covariance was obtained with the median covariance matrix. The median covariance matrix can be used, in combination with average parameters obtained on-farm, to generate virtual populations of pigs that account for a realistic description of mean performances and their variability. HubMed – eating