Predicting Criminality From Child Maltreatment Typologies and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms.

Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2013; 4:
Elklit A, Karstoft KI, Armour C, Feddern D, Christoffersen M

The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has established that childhood abuse rarely occurs as a unidimensional phenomenon. Therefore, a number of studies have investigated the existence of abuse typologies.The study is based on a Danish stratified random probability survey including 2980 interviews of 24-year-old people. The sample was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the PC-PTSD Screen.Significant differences were found between the two genders with males reporting heightened rates of criminality. Furthermore, all three maltreatment typologies were associated with criminal behavior with odds ratios (ORs) from 2.90 to 5.32. Female gender had an OR of 0.53 and possible PTSD an OR of 1.84.The independent association of participants at risk for PTSD and three types of maltreatment with criminality should be studied to determine if it can be replicated, and considered in social policy and prevention and rehabilitation interventions. HubMed – rehab


Interlimb Coordination during Forward and Backward Walking in Primary School-Aged Children.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e62747
Meyns P, Desloovere K, Molenaers G, Swinnen SP, Duysens J

Previous studies comparing forward (FW) and backward (BW) walking suggested that the leg kinematics in BW were essentially those of FW in reverse. This led to the proposition that in adults the neural control of FW and BW originates from the same basic neural circuitry. One aspect that has not received much attention is to what extent development plays a role in the maturation of neural control of gait in different directions. BW has been examined either in adults or infants younger than one year. Therefore, we questioned which changes occur in the intermediate phases (i.e. in primary school-aged children). Furthermore, previous research focused on the lower limbs, thereby raising the question whether upper limb kinematics are also simply reversed from FW to BW. Therefore, in the current study the emphasis was put both on upper and lower limb movements, and the coordination between the limbs. Total body 3D gait analysis was performed in primary school-aged children (N?=?24, aged five to twelve years) at a preferred walking speed to record angular displacements of upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot with respect to the vertical (i.e. elevation angle). Kinematics and interlimb coordination were compared between FW and BW. Additionally, elevation angle traces of BW were reversed in time (revBW) and correlated to FW traces. Results showed that upper and lower limb kinematics of FW correlated highly to revBW kinematics in children, which appears to be consistent with the proposal that control of FW and BW may be similar. In addition, age was found to mildly alter lower limb kinematic patterns. In contrast, interlimb coordination was similar across all children, but was different compared to adults, measured for comparison. It is concluded that development plays a role in the fine-tuning of neural control of FW and BW. HubMed – rehab


Effects of tai chi in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: preliminary evidence.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e61806
Yan JH, Guo YZ, Yao HM, Pan L

Currently, several studies assessed the role of Tai Chi (TC) in management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but these studies have wide variation of sample and convey inconclusive results. We therefore undertook a meta-analysis to assess the effects of TC.A computerized search through electronic databases was performed to obtain sample studies. The primary outcomes were 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and dyspnea. Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life and pre-bronchodilator spirometry. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed with the I(2) test. A random-effects meta-analysis model was applied.Eight randomized controlled trials involving 544 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled WMDs were 34.22 m (95% CI 21.25-47.20, P<0.00001) for 6 MWD, -0.86 units (95% CI -1.44--0.28, P?=?0.004) for dyspnea, 70 ml (95% CI 0.02-0.13, P?=?0.01) for FEV1, 120 ml (95% CI 0.00-0.23, P?=?0.04) for FVC. TC significantly improved the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire total score, and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire score except impact score.Findings suggest that TC may provide an effective alternative means to achieve results similar to those reported following participation in pulmonary rehabilitation programs. Further studies are needed to substantiate the preliminary findings and investigate the long-term effects of TC. HubMed – rehab


The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia.

J Res Med Sci. 2012 Jun; 17(6): 566-71
Maghsoodloo S, Ghodousi A, Karimzadeh T

Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient’s condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis.In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R) score.Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%), history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%), and score of PCL-R ?25 (indicating high probability of hostility) in patients (40%) were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.001).More prevalence of antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (?25) in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too. HubMed – rehab