Plasmids and the Spread of Resistance.

Plasmids and the spread of resistance.

Int J Med Microbiol. 2013 Mar 13;
Carattoli A

Plasmids represent one of the most difficult challenge for counteracting the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. They contribute to the spread of relevant resistance determinants, promoting horizontal gene transfer among unrelated bacteria. Undistinguishable plasmids were identified in unrelated bacterial strains isolated at huge geographically distant area, with no apparent epidemiological links. These plasmids belong to families that are largely prevalent in naturally occurring bacteria, usually carry multiple physically linked genetic determinants, conferring resistance to different classes of antibiotics simultaneously. Plasmids also harbour virulence factors and addiction systems, promoting their stability and maintenance in the bacterial host, in different environmental conditions. The characteristics of the most successful plasmids that were at the origin of the spread of carbapenemase, expanded-spectrum ?-lactamase, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes are discussed in this review. HubMed – addiction


Impact of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy on brain activation to cocaine cues in cocaine dependence.

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Mar 13;
Prisciandaro JJ, Myrick H, Henderson S, McRae-Clark AL, Santa Ana EJ, Saladin ME, Brady KT

BACKGROUND: The development of addiction is marked by a pathological associative learning process that imbues incentive salience to stimuli associated with drug use. Recent efforts to treat addiction have targeted this learning process using cue exposure therapy augmented with d-cycloserine (DCS), a glutamatergic agent hypothesized to enhance extinction learning. To better understand the impact of DCS-facilitated extinction on neural reactivity to drug cues, the present study reports fMRI findings from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DCS-facilitated cue exposure for cocaine dependence. METHODS: Twenty-five participants completed two MRI sessions (before and after intervention), with a cocaine-cue reactivity fMRI task. The intervention consisted of 50mg of DCS or placebo, combined with two sessions of cocaine cue exposure and skills training. RESULTS: Participants demonstrated cocaine cue activation in a variety of brain regions at baseline. From the pre- to post-study scan, participants experienced decreased activation to cues in a number of regions (e.g., accumbens, caudate, frontal poles). Unexpectedly, placebo participants experienced decreases in activation to cues in the left angular and middle temporal gyri and the lateral occipital cortex, while DCS participants did not. CONCLUSIONS: Three trials of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy for cocaine dependence have found that DCS either increases or does not significantly impact response to cocaine cues. The present study adds to this literature by demonstrating that DCS may prevent extinction to cocaine cues in temporal and occipital brain regions. Although consistent with past research, results from the present study should be considered preliminary until replicated in larger samples. HubMed – addiction


2012 Update in addiction medicine for the generalist.

Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2013 Mar 13; 8(1): 6
Rastegar DA, Kunins HV, Tetrault JM, Walley AY, Gordon AJ

This article presents an update on addiction-related medical literature for the calendar years 2010 and 2011, focusing on studies that have implications for generalist practice. We present articles pertaining to medical comorbidities and complications, prescription drug misuse among patients with chronic pain, screening and brief interventions (SBIs), and pharmacotherapy for addiction. HubMed – addiction


Perceived efficacy of e-cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy among successful e-cigarette users: a qualitative approach.

Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2013; 8: 5
Barbeau AM, Burda J, Siegel M

Nicotine is widely recognized as an addictive psychoactive drug. Since most smokers are bio-behaviorally addicted, quitting can be very difficult and is often accompanied by withdrawal symptoms. Research indicates that nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can double quit rates. However, the success rate for quitting remains low. E-cigarettes (electronic cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery devices used to inhale doses of vaporized nicotine from a handheld device similar in shape to a cigarette without the harmful chemicals present in tobacco products. Anecdotal evidence strongly suggests that e-cigarettes may be effective in helping smokers quit and preventing relapse, but there have been few published qualitative studies, especially among successful e-cigarette users, to support this evidence.Qualitative design using focus groups (N?=?11); 9 men and 2 women. Focus groups were conducted by posing open-ended questions relating to the use of e-cigarettes, comparison of effectiveness between NRTs and e-cigarettes, barriers to quitting, and reasons for choosing e-cigarettes over other methods.Five themes emerged that describe users’ perceptions of why e-cigarettes are efficacious in quitting smoking: 1) bio-behavioral feedback, 2) social benefits, 3) hobby elements, 4) personal identity, and 5) distinction between smoking cessation and nicotine cessation. Additionally, subjects reported their experiences with NRTs compared with e-cigarettes, citing negative side effects of NRTs and their ineffectiveness at preventing relapse.These findings suggest tobacco control practitioners must pay increased attention to the importance of the behavioral and social components of smoking addiction. By addressing these components in addition to nicotine dependence, e-cigarettes appear to help some tobacco smokers transition to a less harmful replacement tool, thereby maintaining cigarette abstinence. HubMed – addiction



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