Genomic and Epigenomic Insights Into Nutrition and Brain Disorders.

Genomic and epigenomic insights into nutrition and brain disorders.

Nutrients. 2013; 5(3): 887-914
Dauncey MJ

Considerable evidence links many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders with multiple complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors such as nutrition. Mental health problems, autism, eating disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and brain tumours are related to individual variability in numerous protein-coding and non-coding regions of the genome. However, genotype does not necessarily determine neurological phenotype because the epigenome modulates gene expression in response to endogenous and exogenous regulators, throughout the life-cycle. Studies using both genome-wide analysis of multiple genes and comprehensive analysis of specific genes are providing new insights into genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying nutrition and neuroscience. This review provides a critical evaluation of the following related areas: (1) recent advances in genomic and epigenomic technologies, and their relevance to brain disorders; (2) the emerging role of non-coding RNAs as key regulators of transcription, epigenetic processes and gene silencing; (3) novel approaches to nutrition, epigenetics and neuroscience; (4) gene-environment interactions, especially in the serotonergic system, as a paradigm of the multiple signalling pathways affected in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Current and future advances in these four areas should contribute significantly to the prevention, amelioration and treatment of multiple devastating brain disorders. HubMed – eating


Online cognitive behavioral therapy for bulimic type disorders, delivered in the community by a nonclinician: qualitative study.

J Med Internet Res. 2013; 15(3): e46
McClay CA, Waters L, McHale C, Schmidt U, Williams C

Cognitive behavioral therapy is recommended in the National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines for the treatment of bulimia nervosa. In order to make this treatment option more accessible to patients, interactive online CBT programs have been developed that can be used in the user’s own home, in privacy, and at their convenience. Studies investigating online CBT for bulimic type eating disorders have provided promising results and indicate that, with regular support from a clinician or trained support worker, online CBT can be effective in reducing bulimic symptoms. Two main factors distinguish this study from previous research in this area. First, the current study recruited a wide range of adults with bulimic type symptoms from the community. Second, the participants in the current study had used cCBT with support from a nonclinical support worker rather than a specialist eating disorder clinician.To investigate participants’ experiences of using an online self-help cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) package (Overcoming Bulimia Online) for bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS).Eight participants with a mean age of 33.9 years took part in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a 6-step thematic analysis process.Saturation was achieved, and 7 themes were identified in the dataset. These were: (1) conceptualizing eating disorders, (2) help-seeking behavior, (3) aspects of the intervention, (4) motivation to use the online package, (5) privacy and secrecy with regard to their eating problems, (6) recovery and the future, and (7) participant engagement describing individuals’ thoughts on taking part in the online research study.Participants suggested that online CBT self-help represented a generally desirable and acceptable treatment option for those with bulimic type eating problems, despite some difficulties with motivation and implementation of some elements of the package.International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number of the original RCT that this study is based on: ISRCTN41034162; (Archived by WebCite at HubMed – eating


Fat and salt contents affect the in-mouth temporal sodium release and saltiness perception of chicken sausages.

Meat Sci. 2013 Jan 24; 94(2): 253-261
Chabanet C, Tarrega A, Septier C, Siret F, Salles C

In cooked meats, sodium chloride is involved in taste, texture and flavour release. So a reduction in the salt content may have an impact on overall perception and acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of composition on sodium release and saltiness intensity in chicken sausages. The rheological properties of the sausages differed according to composition. Temporal sodium release and temporal saltiness intensity were evaluated by four selected subjects when eating sausages. At each time point, the effect of the salt level in sausages on sodium release was positive and highly significant. The effect of lipids on sodium release was negative. Concerning perception, the amount of salt used had a positive effect on saltiness intensity, and lipids seemed to exert a masking effect. Generally, clear relationships between salt levels, sodium release and saltiness intensity were found but the masking effect of lipids on saltiness intensity probably also involved texture or fat perception mechanisms. HubMed – eating


Variables affecting the propensity to buy branded beef among groups of Australian beef buyers.

Meat Sci. 2013 Feb 15; 94(2): 239-246
Morales LE, Griffith G, Wright V, Fleming E, Umberger W, Hoang N

Australian beef consumers have different preferences given their characteristics and the effect on expected quality of cues related to health, production process and eating experience. Beef brands using Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grades can help to signal quality and reduce consumers’ uncertainty when shopping. The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of beef buyers and their perceptions about product attributes that affect the propensity to buy branded beef. Binary logistic models were applied identifying differences between all respondents and the potential target market, including buyers in medium to high income segments, and between buyers in the target market who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Variables increasing the propensity to buy branded beef include previous experience, appreciation for branded cuts and concern about quality more than size. Finally, variations in preferences for marbling and cut were found between buyers who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. HubMed – eating



Clip from “Christopher E!” – Teen Talk Show, Topic: “Eating Disorders – Teens Dying to Survive” – This is a clip from the Emmy-nominated teen talk show hosted and produced by Emmy Award winner Christopher Ewing. The show, developed by Post-Newsweek Corp. …